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The Pre-Feasibility Study for Photovoltaic / Water Pumping

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The Pre-Feasibility Study for Photovoltaic / Water Pumping
The Pre-Feasibility Study for
Photovoltaic / Water Pumping System
In Central Vietnam
Study Report
March 2007
Engineering and Consulting Firms Association, Japan
Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc.
Fuji Electric Systems Co., Ltd.
This work was subsidized by Japan Keirin Association
through its Promotion funds from KEIRIN RACE.
Central Highlands
Photos of the 1st Site Survey
Site Survey Photos 1/1
Location
Date
Description
Location
Date
Description
Gia Lai Province
Mang Yang Commune
09/09/2006
Although there is a well, the water is
not sufficient and it often is dry.
Therefore, villagers have to walk
approximately 500 meters to collect
water from a nearby spring.
Kon Tum Province
To Mo Rong Commune
Daic Van I
10/09/2006
To Mo Rong commune is located
approximately 3 hours from Pleiku
by car. There are about 57
households and a population of 300.
Villagers usually walk 300 meters to
draw water from a mountain spring
and usually make this trip 3 times a
day.
However, the commune has installed
some storage tanks in certain
locations. These tanks can hold of
water 3m3 and are equipped with a
tap for easy access.
Location
Date
Description
Gia Lai Province
Mang Yang Commune
Po Dau Village
12/09/2006
In Po Dau village, there are 3
locations for villagers to collect
water. This water comes from the
mountains and there is no water
shortage. There are also no
significant problems with water
quality and it is used for drinking,
cooking, bathing, animals use and
also for irrigation.
Photos of the 2nd Site Survey
Site Survey Photos 1/4
Location
Kon Tum Province Dak Na Commune, Dak Re2
Vill
Date
Kon Tum Province
Dak Na Commune, Dak Re2 Village
24/10/2006
Dak Re2 village is located 1.5km
from power distribution line and is
isolated by river it has no bridge.
Description
22 households, 91villagers
Ethnic Group: Xe Dany Minority
E.L.:783m
N: 14°57’ 11.6’’
E:107°47’ 56.3’’
Villagers walk 1km to collect water
from a river and use kerosene lamps
for lighting (2 liters/month). The
government provides subsidized
kerosene for villagers.
Location
Power Distribution Line in Kon Tum Province
Date
Description
Location
Date
Kon Tum Province
24/10/2006
For the past several years, VN
government
focused
on
the
electrification of remote area.
Note the distribution lines that are
located in mountainous rural areas
Kon Tum Province
Dak Lay Commune Dak King1, 2
25/10/2006
Dak King 1 & 2 villages are located
adjacent to each other in the
mountains
They are 5 to 10 km from
distribution line and there is no plan
to be electrified in the near future.
Description
Dak King 1:42 hhs, 191villagers
Dak King 2: 13 hhs, 62villagers
Ethnic Group: Xe Dany Minority
E.L.:1067-1210m
N: 14°53’ 36.0’’
E:107°59’ 43.6’’
Site Survey Photos 2/4
Location
Date
Kon Tum Province
Dak Lay Commune Dak King1, 2
24/10/2006
Pico Hydro generators are operated
by villagers for lighting and TV.
They can only be used in the rainy
season.
Description
Location
Date
Kerosene Lamp
Kon Tum Province
Dak Lay Commune Dak King1, 2
24/10/2006
Villagers typically obtain water from
mountain springs but it is not
available in the dry season.
Description
They must carry water from river
one km down from village.
They receive no monetary income
but they cultivate rice, cassava for
their personal use.
Location
Date
Description
Kon Tum Province
Dak Lay Commune Dak King1, 2
25/10/2006
VN government have a rural
development fund also known as the
“135 program”.
This fund provides villages with
water tanks so they may store
rainwater in dry season.
Site Survey Photos 3/4
Dak Lak Industry Department
Location
Dak Lak Industry Department
Buon Ma Thuot City
Dak Lak Province,
Date
24/10/2006
Remark
The project team met with ID Dak
Lak and requested the “list of
villages that will not be electrified
until 2010” and also for their
assistance and support to obtain
the permission to conduct our
survey. They provided the list and
granted the team permission two
days later.
Location
Dak Nong Industry Department
Gia Nghia Town
Dak Nong Province
Date
24/10/ 2006
Dak Nong Industry Department
Dak Nong was recently separated
from Dak Lak and its new office is
presently under construction.
Remark
Dak Nong Industry Department
was also very willing to support
our survey. They sent the list in
advance and obtained permission
from Peoples Committee in
advance.
The gentleman on the left is the
Director, Bien Van Minh.
Location
No.1 village
Dak R Mang Commune
Dak Glong District
Dak Nong Province
Date
25/10/ 2006
Remark
No.1 village has only one well,
from which the residents obtain
their drinking water
In the dry season, the well cannot
provide a sufficient volume of
water to meet their needs.
Diameter: 2 meter
Depth to water: around 10 meter
Site Survey Photos 4/4
Location
Date
No.2 village
Dak R Mang Commune
Dak Glong District
Dak Nong Province
25/10/ 2006
Villagers are living on farms but
their agricultural products are
provided with little or no irrigation
Due to the lack of water, human
consumption is the highest priority
Remark
Villagers typically obtain their
water from mountain streams,
however, this does not provide a
sufficient amount of water during
the dry season.
No.2 village is located about 100
meter away from No.1 village.
Location
Krap village
Dak T Pang Commune
Kong Cho Ro District
Gia Lai Province
Date
27/10/ 2006
Picture of local residents of Krap
village.
Remark
Dak T Pang Commune is located
in a mountainous region, therefore
climatic conditions are much
different from Pleiku.
Location
Bong village
Dak T Pang Commune
Kong Cho Ro District
Gia Lai Province
Date
27/10/ 2006
Remark
There are 5 wells located in Bong
village
Presently only 1 is used and the
other 4 have been abandoned due
to unsanitary conditions (trash
disposal)
The well currently in use:
Diameter: 1.5 meter
Depth to water: Approx. 5 meters
Photos of the 3rd Site Survey
Site Survey Photos 1/1
Lam Dong Industry Department
Location
Lam Dong Industry Department
Dalat City
Lam Dong Province,
Date
15/01/2007
The survey team met with the
Director (gentleman on the right)
and also the Head of the Planning
Department.
Remark
The team explained the project
and asked for their support and
they offered to accompany us on
the site survey the following day.
Location
No.1 village (Thon Pang Tieng)
Lat Commune
Lac Duong District
Lam Dong Province
Date
16/01/2007
Remark
In Lam Dong, Village income
levels were slightly higher than
average at around 5 million VND
per year. Primary source of
income is coffee, persimmon and
vegetables.
Drinking water is transported to
villages via a piping system that
utilizes gravity as power and
provided via a centrally located
tap. However, the water is not
available during the dry season
and villager must walk 1-2 km to
collect water.
Location
Buon Cham Village
Easol Commune
Dak Lak Province
Date
17/01/2007
NRW Germany, Solarlab Ho Chi
Minh City in cooperation with the
Vietnamese
government
established a PV site at Buon
Cham village in Dak Lak project.
Remark
The PV equipment was intended
to supply power for a community
center, water-pumping equipment
and provide each habitation with
a SHS.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................1
2
3
1.1
Background and Objectives ..................................................................................................1
1.2
Study Team ...........................................................................................................................2
1.3
Study Schedule......................................................................................................................2
1.4
Scope of Work.......................................................................................................................3
1.5
Study Area.............................................................................................................................3
Overview of Rural Electrification Policy and Current Situation ..................................................5
2.1
MOI’s Rural Electrification Policy .......................................................................................5
2.2
Renewable Energy Development Plan..................................................................................8
2.3
Current State of Rural Electrification ...................................................................................9
2.4
Renewable Energy Potential in Vietnam.............................................................................11
Overview of Rural Water Supply Policy and Current Situation..................................................14
3.1
Rural Water Supply Policy..................................................................................................14
3.1.1
Challenges...................................................................................................................14
3.1.2
Objectives ...................................................................................................................15
3.1.3
Sustainable Development............................................................................................16
3.2
Current Situation of Rural Water Supply ............................................................................17
3.2.1
3.3
4
6
7
Potential for Development and Policy Recommendations..................................................19
Overview of the Site Survey .......................................................................................................22
4.1
Location, Topography and Climate.....................................................................................22
4.2
Results of the Site Survey ...................................................................................................24
4.2.1
Target Areas ................................................................................................................25
4.2.2
Water Quality of Target Villages.................................................................................30
4.3.
5
Delegation of Responsibilities ....................................................................................17
Showcase of Existing Off-Grid Power Systems .................................................................32
Photovoltaic Electric Power and Water Supply System Proposal...............................................38
5.1
Study of Optimum System..................................................................................................38
5.2
Cost Calculation..................................................................................................................40
Economical Analysis of the Project ............................................................................................43
6.1
Initial Cost...........................................................................................................................43
6.2
Operation Cost ....................................................................................................................44
6.3
Economic Analysis of the System.......................................................................................45
Environmental Concerns and Socio-economic Impact ...............................................................47
7.1
Environmental Concerns.....................................................................................................47
7.2
8
Socio-Economic Impacts ....................................................................................................49
Conclusion and Recommendation ..............................................................................................51
8.1
Conclusion ..........................................................................................................................51
8.2
Recommendation ................................................................................................................52
List of Tables
Table 1.1 Study Team Members.................................................................................................2
Table 2.1 Target of Grid Connected Household............................................................................7
Table 2.2 Investment Plan for Rural Electrification ..................................................................7
Table 2.3 Renewable Energy for Power Generation .....................................................................9
Table 2.4 Rural Electrification Rate..............................................................................................9
Table 2.5 Current Photovoltaic Systems .....................................................................................10
Table 2.6 Future Photovoltaic Installations.................................................................................12
Table 4.1 Climate Data of Vietnam.............................................................................................23
Table 4.2 List of Potential Villages in Kon Tum.........................................................................26
Table 4.3 List of Potential Villages in Gia Lai............................................................................27
Table 4.4 List of Potential Villages in Dak Lak ..........................................................................28
Table 4.5 List of Potential Villages in Dak Nong .......................................................................28
Table 4.6 List of Potential Villages in Lam Dong.......................................................................29
Table 4.7 Drinking Water Standards Compared with Samples ...................................................30
Table 4.8 Drinking Water Standards Compared with Samples ...................................................31
Table 5.1 Village List for System Study .....................................................................................38
Table 5.2 Pre-Conditions of the System......................................................................................39
Table 5.3 Cost calculation of PV system for Pumping Equipment .............................................41
Table 5.4 Cost Calculation for Household Electrification ..........................................................42
Table 6.1 Cost Estimate for Water Pumping ...............................................................................43
Table 6.2 Cost Estimate for Household Electrification (Battery Charging Station)....................44
Table 6.3 Maintenance Cost of the Equipment ...........................................................................45
Table 6.4 Maintenance Cost and Battery Replacement...............................................................45
Table 6.5 Economical Analysis of the System ............................................................................46
Table 7.1 Consideration of JBIC Guidelines...............................................................................47
Table 7.2 Expected Socio-Economic Benefits of PV System .....................................................49
List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Study Schedule .........................................................................................................2
Figure 1.2 Map of the Central Highlands...................................................................................4
Figure 2.1 Investment Plan for Rural Electrification ....................................................................8
Figure 2.2 Rural Electrification Rate ..........................................................................................10
Figure 3.1 Delegation of National Responsibilities ....................................................................18
Figure 3.2 Local Responsibilities................................................................................................18
Figure 4.1 Climate Data in Vietnam ...........................................................................................24
Figure 4.2 External appearance of PV yard ................................................................................33
Figure 4.3 Organization of the Fuji Electric PV System Project ................................................34
Figure 4.4 Outline of Project Flow for Buon Cham Village .......................................................37
Figure 5.1 Image of the Project...................................................................................................40
Figure 6.1 Water Pumping Equipment........................................................................................43
Figure 6.2 Equipment for Household Electrification (Battery Charging Station).......................44
Appendices
Appendix 1 Schedule and Interviewees
Appendix 2 Insolation Data for Vietnam
Appendix 3 Gia Lai Grid Extension Plan
Appendix 3 Summary of Program 135
Appendix 4 Formula for Water Pumping System Configuration
Appendix 5 Formula for PV Household Electrification System Configuration
Abbreviation
BCC
: Battery Charging Center
BCS
Battery Charging Station
CERWASS
: Center for Rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation
DARD
: Department of Agriculture and Rural Development
DOI
: Department of Industry
EVN
: Electricity of Viet Nam
GOV
: Government of Vietnam
HCMC
: Ho Chi Minh City
ID
: Industrial Department
IE
: Institute of Energy
IET
: Institute of Environmental Technology
JBIC
: Japan Bank for International Cooperation
JICA
: Japan International Cooperation Agency
MARD
: Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development
MOC
Ministry of Construction
MOET
Ministry of Education and Training
MOH
Ministry of Health
MOI
: Ministry of Industry
MOSTE
: Ministry of Science and Technology and Environment
NRWSS
: National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy Program
PC
: Power Company
PV
: Photovoltaic
SHS
: Solar Home System
VAST
: Vietnamese Academy of Science & Technology
Executive Summary
1. Background of the study
Vietnam’s market reforms have in the last decade resulted in an economic boom and is
substantiated by its impressive annual GDP growth of approximately 8%. Even more
striking is the forecast that this trend is expected to continue. However, despite this fact the
majority of its population still lives in remote farming areas that are stricken with poverty.
This disparity is evinced by a wide income gap between urban and rural areas. The GOV is
committed to reducing this income gap and the development of these rural regions is one
method to accomplish this goal.
In the Central Highlands, both the electrification rate and the water-supply coverage
still fall below average and most of the people in the remote villages are living without
electricity and collect water from either of existing wells or mountain springs and rivers.
Regarding these villages, the team estimated the water and electricity demand and
designed equipment to provide potable water, reliable electricity and to ultimately improve
quality of life for remote villagers. The target area of the Central Highlands is including
Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Dak Nong, and Lam Dong.
2. Overview of Rural Electrification and Renewable Energy in Vietnam
MOI’s Rural Electrification Policy objectives (published in 2000) that specifically relate
to decentralized power systems (off-grid power) in remote areas are as follows:
—
“Rural electricity supply will utilize both national power grid and off-grid power
systems”. Therefore, off-grid and mini-grids are proposed and selected when the
total cost is less than either grid extension or diesel mini-grids.
—
“Priority should be given to those areas that have the capacity to enhance the
agricultural productivity, modernization and economic restructuring of strategic
areas”. Emphasis for mini-grids will be on areas with productive opportunities.
Vietnam’s initial goal at the beginning of the decade was to electrify 90% of households
by the year 2010 and to achieve this task; the government invested approximately
200-300 million USD annually in grid extension and rural electrification projects. By
early 2006, Vietnam had already surpassed its initial goal; at that time 91.5% of rural
households were connected to the national grid. For villages that will not be covered by
the power grid and where it is uneconomical to expand the grid, it is anticipated that these
areas will be electrified by renewable energy.
i
As per EVN’s request, the World Bank, under its Technical Assistance
activity, supported a project for renewable energy development in Vietnam.
The project is named the Renewable Energy Action Plan (REAP) and was
designed with a specified background aiming to assist MOI in developing the
necessary instruments to enforce the activities and policy components.
3. Overview of Rural Water Supply
The quality of life for rural people in Vietnam is generally low and income generated
usually covers only the basic necessities, such as clothes and food. Their lifestyle has not
changed much despite Vietnam’s rapid economic development. Despite these challenges,
there is considerable focus by the government on rural development and water supply
improvement. Steering committees have been formed for water supply and sanitation at
both the national and local levels and rural development is considered a high national
priority.
Long-term goals by year 2010 to improve the water supply are set forth as follows:
¾
85% of rural population will use clean water and have access to 60 LPCD
¾
70% of rural households will have approved hygienic latrines
Most rural households have two sources of water, one for drinking and water for
washing. Piped water is uncommon and not readily available in rural areas.
Approximately 30% of households have some basic water supply system and of this, only
10% of households meet the national water standards. In the Central Highlands,
approximately 90% of the population has intestinal worms.
NRWSS suggests that a water resources monitoring system be established that utilizes
data collected from NRWSS implementation. This will help coordinate NRWSS activities
and determine the demand for local areas, not only for drinking water but also water for
other uses. Eventually, it is hoped that this will lead to better management and ultimately
the protection of water resources.
4. Site Survey
The project team requested the Industrial Departments (ID) of all five provinces to
provide data for villages that are expected not to be candidates by 2010 for the power grid
extension plan. The Industrial Departments have specific plans to expand the power grid
to remote areas by 2009. However, there are no plans to supply power to the remaining
villages after 2010. Out targeted areas are these non-electrification that are typically
ii
difficult to reach during the rainy season even by 4 WD vehicles, these areas are also a
great distance from distribution lines.
Minority groups inhabit most of the un-electrified villages. They use kerosene lamps for
lighting and some of them have Pico Hydro for small appliances such as TV and radio.
Kerosene fuel is subsidized by the local government to remote villages and received free
of charge. Inhabitants often practice subsistence farming with crops such as rice, cassava
and typically receive no monetary income.
Most of the villages have small privately owned wells with a depth of around 5-20
meters as they do not have the technology to dig deeper than 20 meters and this therefore
limits their water supply. They lift up the water by hand in most of these wells and cannot
afford diesel engines to assist with the lifting.
5. Photovoltaic Electric Power and Water Supply System Proposal
The proposed system design for this project was based on many factors. The
team collected village information for targeted areas such as number of
households, total population and mean water intake etc…during the site
survey and also obtained it directly from the respective Peoples Committees in
the Central Highlands (Gia Lai, Kon Tum, Dak Lak, Dak Nong and Lam Dong)
for system design.
The team decided to focus its efforts on 37 villages; these villages consist of 5,737
households and a total population of 26,805 people. Potential sites were determined
taking into consideration the method of water collection, distance from distribution lines
and road conditions.
The team estimated the initial cost for both water pumping and house electrification.
6. Economic Analysis
According to interviews, for villager’s that own livestock or cultivate certain cash crops,
their capacity to pay for this region is around 300 yen/month. However, many poor
villagers receive no monetary income and it is impractical to assume that villagers will be
able to reimburse the initial cost of 1.412 billion Yen (about 53,000 Yen per person);
therefore, the project team recommends the government to subsidize this cost.
If the government subsidizes the initial cost of the project, villagers will be responsible
iii
for only the O&M cost. Assuming the generated power sells at a rate of 600 VND/kWh,
total power sales would be 3,706,000 Yen / year. This would result in a monthly electric
fee of about 50 yen/month. Although this is well within the their financial means, it is
recommended that villagers pay an additional 140 yen/month to act as a reserve fund to
cover system O&M. In addition, the project team also recommends that the government
also subsidize the electricity fee for poor villagers that are unable to pay. These payments
will cover the costs of any major malfunctions, battery replacement and also ensure the
long-term sustainability of this project.
7. Conclusion and Recommendation
The development of the Central Highlands in Vietnam has become a major focus area;
future project aid from various donors is expected to increase and together with Laos and
Cambodia, it is often referred to as the “Development Triangle.”
However, the team realizes that villages will remain without grid-connected power and
also continue to suffer from a lack of potable water nearly throughout the year. The local
government in the 5 provinces of the Central Highlands recommended 94 potential sites
and based on local conditions the project team then selected the 37 most appropriate sites.
The total project cost is expected to be approximately 12 million USD with energy output
totaling 1.3 MW.
Although the initial costs of the project are high and villagers often do not have the
knowledge to operate and maintain these systems, most were enthusiastic at the prospect
and agreed to pay for operational costs (approximately 1.6 USD/month) to ensure the
sustainability of the facilities. However, due to the high poverty rate and unfortunate
economic conditions, they will most likely be unable to reimburse the initial cost of the
project.
The Institute of Energy, an organization of the Vietnamese government is in the process
of drafting the “Master Plan for Renewable Energy Development.” This plan will be
completed next year (2008) and it will outline clear target areas for future rural
electrification projects. This pre-feasibility study for the Central Highlands should not be
the final step and every effort should be made for the continued investigation of this
project scheme in response to the upcoming publication.
The project team therefore recommends that this type of transfer program be included in
the next stage (full scale F/S) of the project.
iv
1
Introduction
1.1
Background and Objectives
Following its dismal economic performance in the early 1980’s, The Government of
Vietnam (GOV) enacted its “Doi Moi” program that abandoned the collectivization of its
industrial and agricultural sectors. Although it was slow to take effect, these market
reforms have in the last decade resulted in an economic boom and is substantiated by its
impressive annual GDP growth of approximately 8%. Even more striking is the forecast
that this trend is expected to continue.
However, despite this fact the majority of its population still lives in remote farming areas
that are stricken with poverty. This disparity is evinced by a wide income gap between
urban and rural areas. The GOV is committed to reducing this income gap and the
development of these rural regions is one method to accomplish this goal.
The GOV wishes to reduce the poverty rate and improve the living conditions in rural
areas by focusing on the development of the water and power supply. In order to
accomplish this task, the “National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy Program:
NRWSS,” is aiming to provide a safe and stable water supply for both for both drinking
purposes and to ease the burden of daily life. To improve the power supply, the company
“Electricity of Viet Nam” (referred to as EVN) and Peoples’ Committee of the respective
provinces are engaged in rural electrification based on the “Off-grid Rural Electrification
Project” which has already surpassed its goal of achieving a 90% rural electrification rate
for Vietnam by 2010 as the figure now stands at 91.5%. This scheme is not limited to grid
extension projects but it will also utilize renewable energy such as photovoltaic and
mini-hydro power to provide an optimal mix to meet the needs of villagers in these remote
regions.
In the Central Highlands, both the electrification rate and the water-supply coverage still
fall below average and most of the people in the remote villages are living without
electricity and collect water from either of existing wells or mountain springs and rivers.
To improve these conditions, the Peoples’ Committees in the Central Highlands, especially
in Gia Lai Province are very willing to accommodate the survey due to its prior history
1
with PV projects and the high rate of insolation in the region. Fuji Electric Systems
installed a successful PV project and carried out demonstrative research from 1997-2002.
The study team therefore determined that the possibility to install the water pumping and
supply system powered by photovoltaic that utilizes existing wells in the Central
Highlands shall be studied.
1.2
Study Team
Persons-in-charge of the study are listed below
Table 1.1 Study Team Members
No.
Name
Specialty
1
Hideo SEMBA
Project Manager
2
Masahiro SAKURAI
Photovoltaic System Plan
3
Kenichi KUWAHARA
Rural Area Development Plan
4
Fumikazu DOI
Water-pumping System Plan
5
Naoki YOKOTA
Profitability Analysis
6
Chadwick SMITH
Rural Area Development Plan
1.3
Study Schedule
(Please see Appendix A for details of travel itinerary and list of interviewees)
Figure 1.1 Study Schedule
July
August
September
October
November
December
January
February March
r
e
r
t
e
a
t
a
W
W
V
V
P
P
t
n
t
n
a
t
a
l
t
u
l
s
u
n
s
o
n
o
C
C
Documentation of
the implement plan
﹁
+
﹁
+
Procedure for
the contract
Survey preparation
appoint・logistics
1st Summarize
site survey results
Project
Basic master plan
Basic design
Survey
preparation
2nd Summarize
site survey results
3rd
site survey
System Design
Economic Analysis
﹂
﹂
Benefits
Profitability Analysis
2
Report
Report
Draft
Draft
Preparing report
( English)
Final
Final
Report
Report
Accounting
document
Statement
Statement
ofof
Account
Account
1.4
Scope of Work
The first step of this project is to study the background of the current power and water
situation and the current policy of renewable energy promotion for remote villages of the
Central Highlands.
The study team selected villages based on the recommendation of the Department of
Industry and carried out a site survey to determine such factors as water supply methods,
income, current lighting situation and other factors relevant to daily life.
Regarding these villages, the team estimated the water and electricity demand and
designed equipment to provide potable water, reliable electricity and to ultimately improve
the quality of life for remote villagers. The system will consist of the following equipment:
¾
Photovoltaic array
¾
Water pumping from existing wells and water supply
¾
Battery charging station
Based on the results of the site survey, the team also calculated the initial as well as the
O&M cost to implement the project for the targeted villages and proposed a sustainable
project scheme that will allow it to become both financially and operationally independent.
The feasibility of a large-scale expansion project throughout the Central Highlands is also
studied.
1.5
Study Area
The study was originally focused only on Gia Lai province.
However, following the 1st
site survey, it was determined that the population of the villages in Gia Lai province was
not large enough and the small project scale would only a minimum amount of people. The
team therefore reexamined the situation and based on the recommendations of the Peoples
Committee, decided that target area should be expanded to other areas of the Central
Highlands including Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Dak Nong, and Lam Dong.
3
Figure 1.2 Map of the Central Highlands
Location
of
Target Sites
4
2
Overview of Rural Electrification Policy and Current Situation
2.1
MOI’s Rural Electrification Policy
The Government of Vietnam’s (GOV) policy on renewable energy development for rural
electrification and grid supply clearly defines the responsibilities for renewable electricity
management and its development as well as a subsidy mechanism for off-grid renewable
energy projects.
MOI’s Rural Electrification Policy objectives (published in 2000) that specifically relate
to decentralized power systems (off-grid power) in remote areas are as follows:
— “Rural electricity supply will utilize both national power grid and off-grid power
systems”. Therefore, off-grid and mini-grids are proposed and selected when the total
cost is less than either grid extension or diesel mini-grids.
— “Priority should be given to those areas that have the capacity to enhance the
agricultural productivity, modernization and economic restructuring of strategic areas”.
Emphasis for mini-grids will be on areas with productive opportunities.
The costs of operation, maintenance and financial depreciation of rural electrification
infrastructure should be recovered from revenues earned by EVN, PCs (distribution
companies) and other operating entities in the Vietnam power sector. The GOV provides a
reasonable subsidy mechanism for investment in rural electrification networks and supply
infrastructure when these are deemed uneconomical based on the expected revenues.
Consistent with the GOV’s policy of equitable distribution, it is expected that renewable
energy- based grid and off-grid services will receive transparent subsidies.
Electricity supply for rural consumers should be considered a commercial service, except
for those areas where the subsidy is authorized as a social obligation and keeping
consistent with the aforementioned equitable development objectives.
To encourage investment in decentralized generation systems utilizing a low voltage grid,
the PCs will offer avoided cost capacity and/or energy payments to potential generators.
This is an important policy to support decentralized generation. Avoided cost–based tariff
reflecting the cost of supply at the specified voltage in each PC service area is important
5
in ensuring the development of economically viable decentralized renewable energy
sources.
For some mountainous and island communes that are unable to connect to the national
grid, provinces will establish on-site or local generation projects suitable to the specific
conditions of each location, such as diesel, small hydropower and photovoltaic power.
The GOV will encourage foreign and local investors to invest in local businesses that
supply electricity. In addition, off-grid and mini-grid options have been identified and the
promotion of renewable energy is expected as a way to electrify large numbers of
communes at a minimum cost. .
The GOV has also formulated the following objectives for the Energy Development
Policy regarding rural electrification and future energy development:
Ⅰ.Consistent exploitation of energy resources and
¾
Investment in energy conservation technologies
Ⅱ.Step by step energy resource development to ensure a sufficient supply
¾
For socio-economic development and improve living standards
¾
For industrialization, modernization and urbanization based on the
diversification of indigenous primary energy resources
Ⅲ.The step by step energy development is to narrow
¾
Socio-economic gap
¾
Energy supply and consumption gap between regions and localities
Ⅳ.Aggressive use of renewable energy aimed to develop the local power resources for
¾
Replacement of the fossil based energy resources
¾
Diversification of the power generation resources
Ⅴ.Upgrade and encourage efficient and reasonable energy use based on demand side
management
Ⅵ.Minimize the environmental impacts of energy development
The Ministry of Industry’s (MOI) initial program was to increase grid-connected
households from 8.95 million in 1999 to 13.73 million by the year 2010 and therefore
rural households connected to grids were expected to increase from 69.7% to 90% during
the same period.
6
Table 2.1 Target of Grid Connected Household
Unit:Million households
Number of Accessed
Number of Accessed
Share
Share
Region
households households
households households
(%)
(%)
in 1999
in 1999
in 2010
in 2010
North
6.6
5.45
80
8.04
7.49
93
2.09
1.35
65
2.48
2.18
88
Center
South
3.95
2.15
54
4.67
4.06
87
Total
12.84
8.95
69.7
15.19
13.73
90
Source : EVN Report
(1) Rural Electrification Project Description and Strategy:
à
Build a new 110 kV grid and distribution network system to supply power
to about 700-800 communes that are inaccessible from the existing power grid.
à
Expand the existing grid in order to supply power for 1,500 – 1,600 communes,
which are near grid areas.
à
Increase the number of rural households that will have access in communes that
are connected to the national electricity network.
(2) Investment Capital for Rural Electricity Development
The rural electricity investment plan for this decade is illustrated in Table 2.2 and Figure
2.1.
Total investment capital is US$ 2.261 billion of which US$ 1.452 billion has already been
invested and the remaining US$ 809 million will be invested in the latter half of the
decade.
Table 2.2 Investment Plan for Rural Electrification
Unit:Million USD
Total
Item
Investment
Rehabilitation
1,003
Grid Development
1,218
Isolated system
40
Total investment
2,261
2000
2001
86
152
4
123
186
139
4
342
7
2002
186
139
4
329
2003
186
139
4
329
2004
186
139
4
329
05-10
173
616
20
809
Source : EVN Report
Figure 2.1 Investment Plan for Rural Electrification
Investment Plan
900
Investment (Millon USD)
800
Isolated system
Grid Development
Rehabilitation
809
700
600
500
400
300
342
329
2001
2003
329
329
2002
2004
123
200
100
0
2000
05-10
Year
Source: EVN Report
2.2
Renewable Energy Development Plan
As per EVN’s request, the World Bank, under its Technical Assistance activity, supported
a project for renewable energy development in Vietnam. The project is named the
Renewable Energy Action Plan (REAP) and was designed with a specified background
aiming to assist MOI in developing the necessary instruments to enforce the activities and
policy components.
The outline of Renewable Energy Action Plan is as follows:
・ Prepared in 2001 by MOI / EVN with WB financial support
・ A 10 year large-scale renewable energy development program for rural electrification
of rural / remote / mountain areas
・ Purpose: Renewable energy will provide cost-effective and reliable electricity to help
rural people improve their standard of living and increase their income
・ Situation: Electrify more than 1,100 remote mountainous communes and villages that
8
represent 750,000 households and 3 million people who are outside the national grid
by the year 2010
Table 2.3 Renewable Energy for Power Generation
2004
Potential by 2020
MW
GWh
MW
GWh
Solar
0.8
4-6
Mini Hydro
135
284
500-780
3,600 Wind
0.8
1.6
200-400
5,000
Biomass
150
310-410
Geothermal
100
Total
287
∼290 1,114-1,596
Source: Workshop in Phnom Penh, 5-6 October 2006
2.3
Potential by 2030
MW
GWh
3,300
9,500
Current State of Rural Electrification
The extension of the national power grid to rural areas, particularly northern mountainous
provinces, Central Highlands and Mekong Delta raises the rural electrification rate of
Vietnam higher than many other countries in the region and also throughout the world. As
of early 2006, 511 out of 521 districts (97.9%) had access to the national power grid; 9
island districts and 1 mainland district had site generation sources; 8,801 out of 8,999
communes (97.8%) were electrified, which was increase of 315 communes compared to
the end of 2004, most of these communes were old remote revolution and resistance bases
located in the mountainous; and 11,834,692 out of 12,934,090 rural households (91.5%)
were connected to the national grid. Table 2.4 and Figure 2.4 provide information
regarding the rural electrification rate from 2000 to 2006.
Table 2.4 Rural Electrification Rate
Year
District
Commune
Household
2000
96.6%
81.9%
73.5%
2001
97.6%
84.9%
77.5%
Source : EVN Annual Report ,2004
2002
97.9%
90.6%
81.4%
2003
97.9%
92.7%
83.5%
2004
97.9%
94.6%
87.5%
2006
98.0%
97.8%
91.5%
Workshop in Phnom Penh, 5-6 October 2006
9
Figure 2.2 Rural Electrification Rate
D is tr ic t
C om m une
H o u s e h o ld
R u r a l E le c t r ific a t io n R a t e
1 0 0 .0 %
9 0 .0 %
8 0 .0 %
9 7 .9 %
9 7 .6 %
9 6 .6 %
9 7 .9 %
9 2 .7 %
9 0 .6 %
8 4 .9 %
8 1 .9 %
8 1 .4 %
7 7 .5 %
7 3 .5 %
8 3 .5 %
9 7 .9 %
9 4 .6 %
8 7 .5 %
9 8 .0 % 9 7 .8 %
9 1 .5 %
7 0 .0 %
6 0 .0 %
5 0 .0 %
4 0 .0 %
3 0 .0 %
2 0 .0 %
1 0 .0 %
0 .0 %
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2006
Year
Source : EVN Annual Report ,2004
Workshop in Phnom Penh, 5-6 October 2006
As part of the rural electrification initiatives, there have been a number of cooperative photovoltaic
power projects with foreign governments and aid programs. These projects provide the basis for
electrification of regions unable to connect grid.
Table 2.5 Current Photovoltaic Systems
Project
1
2
Energy -Solidarity
Vietnam
Decentraized Rural
Electrification Vietnam
3
Solar + Micro
Hydro
4
Solar + Wind
5
Rest's Project
6
7
8
Solar Project with
Germany
Solar Project with
Korea
Solar Project with
Finland
Power
40 kWp
45 kWp + 40
kW Micro
Hydro
100 kWp + 25
kW Micro
Hydro
10 kWp + 3
kW Wind
Date of
Implementation
Investors
Remark
1992-1999
Fondem-France
50 Solar Villages
Solarlab-Vietnam
2000-2004
Fondem-France
Solar-Vietnam
Binh Phuoc
province Can Gio
1995-1999
NEDO-Japan
EVN-Vietnam
Gia Lai province
10 Wp
1997-2004
18 kWp
2002-2003
3.3 kWp
2003-2005
10 kWp
2000-2003
Source: Workshop in Phnom Penh, 5-6 October 2006
10
NEF-Japan
EVN-Vietnam
SIDA-Sweden
Solarlab-Vietnam
GermanyMOST-Vietnam
KIER-Korea
Solarlab-Vietnam
Fortum-Finland
CEMMA-Vietnam
Kon Tum
province
Dong Thap, Binh
phuoc, Dak lac
Bac giang, Dak
alk
Binh can
province
Bac can province
2.4
Renewable Energy Potential in Vietnam
Vietnam is endowed with an abundant amount of renewable energy and there is strong
potential for its utilization. The GOV and local authorities plan for the intensive
development of these resources (PV, wind turbine, hydropower) and there has been a
special emphasis on the promotion and development of bio-energy derived from
agricultural and forest residues. Biomass energy is considered to have one of the highest
potentials for future development in the country and its energy production is expected to
create competitive prices for agricultural food products in its production areas. With this
long-term policy, the GOV aims at modernizing its agricultural sector and further
promoting rural development.
According to a projection by the Hydro Power Center, more than 1,100 remote or
mountainous communes or 750,000 households populated by 3 million rural people will
not be covered by EVN’s grid network despite its extensive grid extension plan. (up to
2010) To electrify these rural communes, it is necessary to utilize potential renewable
sources according based on the location and available resource options. In northern and
central parts of Vietnam, small hydro and pico hydro systems can be suitable options as
these areas have high potential for such projects. EVN expects as much 250-400 MW will
be supplied to remote areas by other renewable resources, such as biomass cogeneration.
¾
Solar Energy
Vietnam is ideally located in a major insolation belt. Southern and central Vietnam have
average insolation of 4.0 to 5.9 kWh/m2/day, which remains almost constant throughout
the year. In northern areas the insolation varies widely ranging from 2.4 to 5.6
kWh/m2/day. Vietnam’s insolation is comparatively high almost all models of
photovoltaic applications have been utilized, such as Solar Home Systems (SHS), battery
charging station (BCS), solar medical center, solar community center, solar cultural boat,
solar school, solar satellite, receiver transmitter etc. Currently, Vietnam has a total
photovoltaic installed capacity of approximately 650 kW or about 5,000 installations. The
present photovoltaic application market in the country is divided into 3 major segments,
namely professional applications (50%), community, health center and battery charging
station stations (30%) and SHS (20%). All of the PV modules installed are imported while
11
some parts of the supporting equipment are locally manufactured.
In the southern and central parts of the country, photovoltaic systems are an option for
electrifying rural communes. Table 2.6 provides a list of future photovoltaic installations.
Although presently wind power is not being considered as a potential energy resource,
EVN expects to future development in coastal areas.
Table 2.6 Future Photovoltaic Installations
No.
Project
Target
Implementaion
Plan
Investors
Remark
1
Solar PV Generation
for Mountainous
Areas in Vietnam
30 Million USDfor 300
mountainous
communes
2005-2010
ODA-Finish
Vietnam
Government
Approved by
VN
Government
2
Solar Home System
for Households in
Mountainous Areas
9.6 Million
USD30,000SHS
Over 10 years
Sponsored by
World Bank
According to
RE Action
Plan
3
100 kWp grid
Solar Energy Project connected + 10
with Spain
kWp stand
alone system
2006-2010
ODA-Spain
MOST-Vietnam
Preparation
Stage
Loan with low
interest from
Bank for the
poor and Bank
for Agriculture
and Rural
Development
Preparation
Stage
4
Commercial SHS
Project
152,000 SHS
system
Source: Workshop in Phnom Penh, 5-6 October 2006
¾
Small Hydropower
As mentioned in previous section, Vietnam has massive potential for small hydropower
development (<10 MW size) totaling between 800-1,400 MW. About 70-75 % of the
annual runoff is generated during three to four months. Currently about 60 MW of
grid-connected mini hydro plants (size 100 to 7,500 kW) is installed at 48 locations in the
country. Among these 48 plants, 6 plants are reported not in operation due to failure of
equipment. With proper rehabilitation programs, there is a substantial scope to increase
the capacity of the hydropower plants presently in operation. The government financed all
of these grid-connected systems either directly or through international aid.
With installed capacity totaling 70 MW, more than 300 communes have small hydro
12
systems installed with system capacity ranging from 5 to 200 kW. Most of these systems
are installed in northern and central Vietnam. Most of the community owned systems are
in poor working condition and it is reported that 200 out of 300 installed systems are not
in operation. On the other hand, commercially operated hydro systems have a low failure
rate when compared to community owned system. For instance, in the case of Dong Nal,
out of a total of 19 systems, the 10 community owned systems are not in operation while
the remaining 9 operational systems are all commercially operated. Community owned
systems are poorly managed with little or no maintenance. Estimates show that Vietnam
has some 500 MW of small hydropower potential that could be developed for future
community use.
¾
Other Renewable Resources
1) Wind Power
・ Potential: Not identified
・ Current development: 1 MW
・ System: Almost 150W-200W for battery charging station (locally constructed) 850 kW
system in Bach Long Vy Island in northern Vietnam
・ Purpose : battery charge, pump-up water and supplying AC power
2) Biomass for electricity
・ Potential: 250-400 MW
・ Current development: 50 MW
・ Purpose: heating, cooking etc.
3) Biogas
・ Potential: Very high
・ Current development: Approximately 35,000 households
・ Purpose: heating, cooking etc.
4) Geothermal
・Potential : 50 – 200 MW
・Current development :0 MW
・Purpose : Sauna / Steam bath, heating, cooking
13
3
Overview of Rural Water Supply Policy and Current Situation
3.1
Rural Water Supply Policy
Most households in rural Vietnam consist of 5 members, these are concentrated in hamlets
and traditional administrative units typically govern villages. The quality of life for these
people is generally low and income generated usually covers only the basic necessities,
such as clothes and food. The lifestyle of people has not changed much despite Vietnam’s
rapid economic development. Therefore, in 1997 the government set forth the Orientation
for Rural Development. This plan recommended the following proposals:
¾
Investments to increase cash crops, promote livestock breeding and handicraft
production
¾
Increase government money, ODA on social development
¾
Create favorable business conditions and partnerships for small retailers and farmers
¾
Promote the application of new and modern equipment
¾
Support to households that join cooperatives, more flexibility in issuing certificates
for land use
Presently an overarching strategy is being development for rural development. This
strategy will further propose ways to development the rural areas and mitigate the income
gap that is associated with economic development.
3.1.1
Challenges
Poor education is often the most difficult obstacle in the successful implementation of
these systems. Many rural villagers do not understand the relation between sanitation and
clean water supply. In addition the present National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation
(NRWSS) system is fragmented, uncoordinated and there is a poor legislative framework
to provide guidance and policy directives.
Furthermore, in mountainous regions such as the Central Highlands, people usually lack
water resources altogether and must carry water from springs or only have access to deep
ground water due to the lack of surface water. Climatic changes have also worsened the
14
situation, floods and droughts have occurred in regions not normally equipped to deal
with these types of events and in some regions, water resources have been exhausted and
immediate attention is needed.
Finally a major challenge is the inability to transfer knowledge of RWSS systems to local
people. There are no centers or programs to provide technology transfer and increase
awareness; these factors are hindering any future progress.
Despite these challenges, there is considerable focus by the government on rural
development and water supply improvement. Steering committees have been formed for
water supply and sanitation at both the national and local levels and rural development is
considered a high national priority. Although the more local rural supply schemes lack
certain policy level directives, the decentralization is also a benefit because it reaches
projects at the lowest level.
The government is also reformulating the way it deals with rural development. Previously
living conditions improved only through higher agricultural yields. Recently this has
changed and the government is examining a more comprehensive rural development plan
that includes agricultural surpluses that can be used for the processing industry, increased
livestock breeding and the development or rural trade and industries. Ultimately, this will
result in the development of rural centers that will link these rural areas to the more
prosperous regions and further spur rural development.
3.1.2
Objectives
The Ministry of Construction in consultation with the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Development have determined that the development objectives of the NRWSS are to
improve the health and living conditions of the rural population and to reduce the
environment pollution. These objectives will be implemented by adhering to immediate
goals such clean water access by all public facilities, priority shall be given to areas
lacking clean water such as remote regions or those suffering from pollution and there
shall be protection against water resource exhaustion both surface and groundwater.
Long-term goals are set forth as follows:
By year 2010
¾ 85% of rural population will use clean water and have access to 60 LPCD
15
¾ 70% of rural households will have approved hygienic latrines and have good personal
hygiene practices
By year 2020
¾
All rural people will use clean water t and hygienic latrines that meet national
standards
¾
Improved universal hygiene and sanitary practices through community involvement
and educational programs.
3.1.3
Sustainable Development
The government has determined that long-term sustainable development of its rural water
supply management is a high priority and major goal. A number of actions will be carried
out to ensure that its development receives attention.
Clear ownership of facilities will be emphasized so that it encourages a sense of efficient
use and associated maintenance will also extend the service life of equipment. This will
ensure that all facilities have a basic management plan for use, appropriate technology and
staff capable of carrying out the repair work along with a system of supplying spare parts.
In order to make this program a success, the concept of project implementation will be
shifting from a supply responsive approach to a demand responsive approach. This will
entail that the users pay all of the costs themselves.
After necessary advice the user will determine the type of facilities and the financing
scheme, construct the facilities or arrange to pay a contractor and finally to manage the
operation and maintenance.
Government agencies and donors will provide assistance and guidance, grants will also be
provided to the poor but the ultimate responsibility rests with the people. In addition,
educational campaigns will be used to provide instruction and advice to local people
before and during the NRWSS projects
This is critical to ensure the long-term sustainability of the rural water supply system. It
will eventually result in the development of self-confidence and management practices
that will further benefit the projects and the people. From 2005, it is expected that RWSS
16
will follow this approach.
3.2
Current Situation of Rural Water Supply
Due to its mountainous terrain, climatic conditions and a vast river system, Vietnam is
endowed with an abundant natural water supply. However, rice field irrigation and uneven
distribution result in water shortages in certain areas. The inefficient use of water and poor
sanitation practices further exacerbate this problem.
Most rural households have two sources of water, one for drinking and water for washing.
Piped water is uncommon and not readily available in rural areas. Approximately 30% of
households have some basic water supply system and of this, only 10% of households
meet the national water standards.
In addition to these factors, only about 50% of rural households have latrines (toilet
facilities). Most families practice open defecation and this subsequently causes frequent
water contamination. Outbreaks of cholera and typhoid are common and have increased in
recent years due to population growth. In certain areas such as the Central Highlands,
approximately 90% of the population has intestinal worms.
Programs funded by UNICEF to correct this deficiency have been ongoing for more than
15 years. Many wells with hand pumps and latrines have been constructed along with
private facilities built by villagers; however, this only represents a small fraction of what
is needed and much more work remains to be done in these areas
3.2.1
Delegation of Responsibilities
Responsibilities will be divided among the national and local levels. However,
government organizations will not participate in the business activities, they will only
provide policy level guidance and advisory to the users.
The Ministry of Agricultural Rural Development (MARD) will be the lead ministry and
responsible for the overall coordination of the programs and projects. In addition, they
will coordinate the education system and the funds for grants and loans. MARD will
delegate certain tasks to other ministries as follows (See list of Acronyms)
17
Figure 3.1 Delegation of National Responsibilities
MOSTE
Research and
Development of Water
Supply Systems
MOC
Construction of Water
Supply Facitilies
Central
Vietnamese
Government
MARD
Overall
Coordination
MOH
Assist with Education
Program for
Sanitation Issues
MOET
Research for
Education Program
Relating to Clean
Water Supply
Source: RWSS
The local government will also have the responsibility to carry out a number of duties that
include:
Figure 3.2 Local Responsibilities
Province
Establish appropriate organizations,
coordinate as sitance to impement NWSS
Coordinate with National Level
District
Implementation of roject schemes within
district Provide tech., finance, and
construction advice
Commune
Lowest adminisrative level and
closest to the people
Serve as coordinator and advisor to users
Village
No administrative tasks
Provides an important link for rural residents
and community
Mobilize community participation
18
3.3
Potential for Development and Policy Recommendations
Future rural water supply will be developed utilizing a number a different technologies
that suit each different location including tube wells or dug wells with or without
treatment facilities, fitted with either a hand pump or an electric pump. In addition, piped
schemes may be employed that include simple gravity flow systems or systems that utilize
electric pumps. The connections may be to individual households or to a public
connection located near a cluster of households.
Water supply in mountainous areas is often a problem and the NRWSS recommends
several methods to overcome these difficulties such as gravity piped schemes,
construction of small dams or ponds to store rainwater and pumping water from rivers.
Piped schemes are increasingly popular and are strongly encouraged for all districts, the
project team observed several piped schemes during the site survey in the Central
Highlands. It is estimated that by 2020, approximately 40% of all rural households will be
supplied with piped schemes.
Poor people typically inhabit mountainous areas and often benefit from grant funds.
Furthermore, work in these areas will also involve improving quality of life and this is a
driving force behind GOV’s policy objectives, such as recognizing the lower rate of
literacy and the need for information in minority languages.
Although there is an ample amount of data available in the various ministries dealing with
water resources, it still needs to be organized at the central and provincial level to allow
for improved water management.
NRWSS suggests that a water resources monitoring system be established that utilizes
data collected from NRWSS implementation. This will help coordinate NRWSS activities
and determine the demand for local areas, not only for drinking water but also water for
other uses. Eventually, it is hoped that this will lead to better management and ultimately
the protection of water resources.
It is recommended that each province set up a water resource and inventory database. This
19
will allow for the detailed investigation of groundwater, surface water, rainwater and
potential for development of these resources.
Moreover, this investigation will be able to clearly demonstrate the need for an improved
water management and protection plan throughout Vietnam, which will ultimately lead to
a more effective NRWSS and improve the coordination between national and local
governments and also between provinces.
Vietnam faces formidable challenges regarding water supply. It is estimated that 1 billion
people in Asia will face a water supply shortage in the 21st century. The NRWSS is
already making considerable progress and has set up an Action Plan that includes pilot
implementation of the NRWSS in 15 provinces in 2005. This initial Action Program will
determine the feasibility and soundness of the strategy and identify areas that need to be
rectified.
In addition, the initial Action Program will include a focused education campaign. Prior to
implementation, surveys will be conducted to tailor each education campaign to the
specific region and attention will be given to local minority languages and also the
literacy level. These educational activities will take place through radio and television,
books and advertisements, face to face meeting and also be integrated into other campaign
that teach family planning, poverty alleviation and also agriculture.
After two years of successful pilot implementation, the RWSS will expand in 46 other
provinces; these provinces will be divided into 4 groups of 11-12 provinces for
subsequent annual implementation. This stage will also include increased international
cooperation. Laws regarding water resources, environmental protection and people rights
may also be amended to allow for smooth project implementation.
There will also be an emphasis on human resources development and training of local
staff to carry out the necessary duties for project implementation. This may include
training courses at local Universities or vocational schools in addition to the normal
workshop and short training courses. Appropriate mechanisms for funding will be
identified and organizations that act as the implementing bodies will be given the
responsibility of handing the government supported grants and loans.
Additional research and development will be carried out in regards to NRWSS
20
technologies and manuals will be drafted to provide guidance to local regional conditions.
Finally, efforts should be made to create a water resources database that may serve as a
source of detailed information for future water resource development and policy level
legislation.
These initial efforts are expected to be completed around 2005 but may be delayed. Once
the initial program has been successfully carried out for a minimum of two years, the
NRWSS will expand to 46 other provinces and it is hoped that this will alleviate the water
shortages and concerns for rural people in Vietnam thereby making a significant
improvement to their life and also the region.
This section provided a general outline of the water supply policies and future initiatives.
The following section will provide more details regarding specific information in the
targeted project sites.
21
4
Overview of the Site Survey
4.1
Location, Topography and Climate
Vietnam is situated on the eastern part of Indochina peninsula and covers an area of
325,360 sq. km. Its land borders are with China in the north, Laos and Cambodia to the
west. Vietnam also borders several bodies of water including the Gulf of Tonkin, the Gulf
of Thailand and a long coastline stretching 3,444 kilometers.
The country is divided into the following eight economic regions:
9
North Central Coast : Bac Trung Bo (BTB)
9
Mekong River Delta : Chau Tho Song Me Kong (CSM)
9
Red River Delta : Chiru Tho Song Hong (CSH)
9
Northeast: Dong Bac (DOB)
9
Northeast South : Dong Nom Bo (DNB)
9
South Central Coast : Nam Trung Bo (NTB)
9
Northwest : Tay Bac (TAB)
9
Central Highlands : Tay Nguyen (TNG)
Vietnam has a diverse topography of plains, midlands, mountains and forests. Three
quarters of Vietnam is mountainous and forests cover the majority of the country. There
are 2,860 rivers of which the two biggest ones are the Red River in the North and the
Mekong River in the South. Due to the topographical situation, northern rivers flow
vigorously during the rainy season and the currents of southern rivers are relatively
peaceful due to the flat plains. There are two large deltas in Vietnam; the Red River Delta
is 15,000 square kilometers and the Mekong River Delta, which is nearly twice its size.
Much of the Central Highlands is a series of flat plateaus, inhabited mainly by various
ethnic groups. The ethnic minorities of the Central Highlands are composed of various
tribes, the most prevalent being the M'nong, the Ede, and the Bannar. These groups may
appear to be similar but are culturally quite different. Most villages consist of thatched
single family houses arranged around a central communal longhouse, called a nha rang in
Vietnamese, raised on stilts at the center of town where all ceremony and governance take
place. Each group has a particular style of nha rang, the most dynamic being the Bannar
22
style of an over-three-story-high peak of thatch, but each kind of nha rang is an important
symbol of community-respective groups and the center of worship and colorful ceremony.
The Central Highlands, called Tay Nguyen in Vietnamese, is made up of five provinces:
Kontum, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Dak Nong, and Lam Dong, stretching along the high ridge of
the Trong Son Mountain Range of the Annamese Cordillera that serves as a natural border
between Vietnam and nearby Laos and Cambodia. With the increase in altitude, the
temperature in the highlands is cool, ranging from between 18°C and 25°C.
Vietnam belongs to a typical Asian monsoon climatic zone. Warm temperatures, high
humidity and abundant seasonal rainfall typify this climate zone. Vietnam has nearly
2,000 hours of sunshine per year on average, approximately 100 days of rain with an
annual amount of 2,000 mm, and humidity is high at around 85%. Typhoons influence
regional weather patterns in northern areas during the months of September and October.
Table 4.1 and Figure 4.1 show the climate data, temperature, days of sunshine and
humidity in both Pleiku and Hanoi. Pleiku is the largest city in the Central Highlands
where the survey sites were located and represents typical conditions for this region. As
demonstrated in the table below, there is a high amount of insolation throughout the year
in the Central Highlands and also rainfall drastically decreases in the months of October
to February during the dry season. This often results in severe water shortages for local
villages and demonstrates the need for improvements in the water supply.
Table 4.1 Climate Data of Vietnam
Sun Shine
(Hr)
Temperature
(℃)
Rainfall
(mm)
Humidity (%)
City
Hanoi
Pleiku
Hanoi
Pleiku
Hanoi
Pleiku
Hanoi
Pleiku
Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Average
36
64
46
74 141 185 121 160 122 148 136 161
116
256 288 262 247 232 140 163 124 156 221 258 259
217
17.2 18.1 20.7 24.2 26.6 29.8 29.2 29.1 28.3 26.1 23.1 19.3
24.3
19.1 19.9 22.9 24.5 24.3 22.5 22.8 22.3 22.2 21.3 21.3 18.9
21.8
6
29
45 161 335 229 366 247 107
8
24
28
132
40
52 248 694 290 349 208
6
8
2
158
79
83
81
85
82
75
79
83
81
67
75
73
79
81
76
76
78
83
91
91
94
90
84
80
79
84
Source : Statistical Yearbook 2004
23
Figure 4.1 Climate Data in Vietnam
Climate Data
Temperature (℃) Hanoi
Temperature (℃) Pleiku
35
300
30
250
25
200
20
150
15
100
10
De
c.
Av
er
ag
e
No
v.
ct
.
O
Se
p.
g.
Au
Ju
ly
Ju
ne
M
ar
Fe
b
Ja
M
ay
0
Ap
ril
0
ch
5
.
50
Temperature (℃)
Sun Shine (Hr) Pleiku
350
n.
Sunshine (Hr)
Sun Shine (Hr) Hanoi
City
4.2
Results of the Site Survey
We requested the Industrial Departments (ID) of all five provinces to provide data for
villages that are expected not to be candidates by 2010 for the power grid extension plan.
The Industrial Departments have specific plans to expand the power grid to remote areas
by 2009. However, there are no plans to supply power to the remaining villages after 2010.
Out targeted areas are these non-electrification that are typically difficult to reach during
the rainy season even by 4 WD vehicles, these areas are also a great distance from
distribution lines.
Minority groups inhabit most of the un-electrified villages. They use kerosene lamps for
lighting and some of them have Pico Hydro for small appliances such as TV and radio.
Kerosene fuel is subsidized by the local government to remote villages and received free
of charge. Inhabitants often practice subsistence farming with crops such as rice, cassava
and typically receive no monetary income.
After permission was granted to conduct the survey in the region, the team obtained
information regarding the power situation. However data for water resources in each of
the villages is not readily available. Therefore, in order to understand the situation of
villages in each province, the consulted with ID and determined the most appropriate
sites.
24
Most of the villages have small privately owned wells with a depth of around 5-20 meters
as they do not have the technology to dig deeper than 20 meters and this therefore limits
their water supply. They lift up the water by hand in most of these wells and cannot afford
diesel engines to assist with the lifting.
Villagers state that potable drinking water is the most vital component of their life and
they requested improvements in this area during interviews. The team understands that
some villages need not only power but also deeper wells and a reliable supply of water.
4.2.1
Target Areas
(1) Kon Tum Province
Kon Tum province is 9, 614 km2 and has seven districts with a population of 316,000. Its
population density is the lowest among the five provinces in the Central Highlands.
According to the data from ID Kon Tum, there are 18 non-electrified villages that are
difficult to connect to the power grid by 2010.
Populations in individual villages are small at around 100 to 300 for each village. There
are also villages such as Mang Buk and Ngol Tem commune, which are located in
mountainous areas (elevation more than 1500m) and are difficult to reach by vehicle.
Most villagers can access spring water for drinking from a pipeline in the mountains.
However, in dry season, these areas often run dry and local people suffer from a lack of
water. This requires them to walk 2-7 km in order to collect water for basic needs such as
drinking and cooking therefore living conditions often worsen during this season becomes
very difficult.
In our site survey, we visited four villages in Tu Mo Rong district; we chose six potential
villages for our study and estimated the cost of system installation.
25
Table 4.2 List of Potential Villages in Kon Tum
Village Name
Tu Thon
Tia Plong 1+2, Ngoc Mo
G
i
a
Commune Name
District Name
No. of
Household
No. of
Population
Water
Demand per
day[kl]
Dak Nen
Kon Plong
61
274
13.7
Mang But
Kon Plong
135
648
32.4
35
175
8.75
42
194
9.7
40
183
9.15
39
179
8.95
Dick TaCok
Dick Pet
Ngoc Tem
Kon Plong
Ngoc Lay
Tu Mo Rong
Mang Vach
Dak King 1
(2) Gia Lai province
Gia Lai province has 12 districts; a population of about 981,000 and it covers an area of
15,496 km2. The eastern area is mountainous and there are highlands in the west. At the
time this report was written, it was planned that the western area would be electrified by
2010. Nevertheless, according to ID Gia Lai, there are still 11 non-electrified villages that
prove quite difficult to be accommodated by this grid expansion plan and will probably
remain without power. These 11 villages are located a great distance from the distribution
lines and in the mountains. The situation is similar to Kon Tum.
Because of the lack of water, there is a water tank to store drinking water from a nearby
mountain, however, this does not provide a sufficient amount during the dry season and
villages suffer from a lack of water.
ID Gia Lai and Power Company Gia Lai both have a strong interest in this project and
wish to further develop the Central Highlands, as Pleiku is the capital of Gia Lai and the
largest city in the region, these organizations feel a certain responsibility to the minority
people and have played a major role in assisting our efforts in this study. The support
provided should not be underestimated and it is recommended that any future project
implementation in the region would benefit from involving organizations.
In our site survey, we visited four villages in Dak T Pang and Mang Yang commune and
we targeted six potential villages to compute a cost estimate.
26
Table 4.3 List of Potential Villages in Gia Lai
Village Name
Commune Name
District Name
No. of
Household
Water
No. of
Demand per
Population
day[kl]
Distance
from Grid
(km)
L. Kon Vong 2
Dak Rong
K Bang
44
220
11.0
12
L. Tung
Kroong
K Bang
63
315
15.8
10
Thon 7
So Pai
K Bang
205
1025
51.3
1.5
Thon 8
So Pai
K Bang
119
595
29.8
2
L. Kon Yot
Ha Dong
Dak Doa
45
225
11.3
2.4
Po Pau
Lo Pang
M Yang
60
300
15.0
3
Additionally, there is a Photovoltaic model site in Gia Lai. This site is well maintained by
PC Gia Lai and the villagers are able to operate it without difficulties. (Please refer to
section 4.3 for a more detailed description of this site)
(3) Dak Lak and Dak Nong province
Dak Nong province was recently separated from Dak Lak province. These two provinces
are 19,599 km2 and have 19 districts combined with a population of about 1,793,000.
According to information received from ID Dak Lak and ID Dak Nong, most areas will
be electrified by 2010 but there are still 37 non-electrified villages that will not be
influenced by power grid expansion.
Since Dak Nong recently became independent, ID Dak Nong has an aggressive attitude
toward improving in its newly formed province. Therefore, individuals were very in
assisting the team with our survey and welcomed any type of project that may further
development.
Non-electrified villages are primarily located in the mountains and residents depend on
wells and mountain streams for water. The wells are usually in the village center and
utilize poorly hand made water tube lines to draw water from the rather distant mountain
streams. Although the water quality is sufficient for drinking, (please refer water quality
data in section 4.2.2) the amount of water drawn from these two sources is extremely low
at roughly 1 liter per person per day. In addition, this amount decreases during the dry
season making it difficult for residents to accomplish basic tasks such as washing.
27
If river water becomes undrinkable due to the high silt and dirt content, the villagers then
use water from wells and mountain streams for drinking purposes. Due to this unfortunate
situation, villagers have adapted to a lifestyle with limited potable water. For example,
locally grown agricultural products typically require very little or no irrigation and
villagers have become accustomed to washing their bodies and clothes with murky
unclean water.
The team visited Buon Cham village in Dak Lak where the similar project was carried out
in the past. (Please refer to section 4.3 for a more detailed description)
In our Dak Nong survey, the team visited potential villages to compute a cost estimate for
project implementation. The villages selected are in both provinces, 8 are in Dak Lak and
7 are in Dak Nong are listed below.
Table 4.4 List of Potential Villages in Dak Lak
Village Name
Commune Name
Water
No. of
No. of
Demand per
Household Population
day[kl]
District Name
Distance
from Grid
(km)
Se Dang
Ea Kiet
Cu M'gar
120
500
25.0
10
Buon Tria
Ea Trul
Cu M'gar
100
500
25.0
5
Thon Yang Hanh
Cu Dram
Krong Bong
352
1408
70.4
15
Buon Cham
Ea Sol
Ea H'leo
150
900
45.0
8
Ton Thanh Xuan
Ea Kenh
Krong Pak
140
560
28.0
6.5
Ton Thanh Binh
Ea Kenh
Krong Pak
147
588
29.4
6.5
Thon 7A
Ea Phe
Krong Pak
130
520
26.0
3
Thon 7C
Ea Phe
Krong Pak
125
500
25.0
3
Table 4.5 List of Potential Villages in Dak Nong
Village Name
Commune Name District Name
Water
No. of
No. of
Demand per
Household Population
day[kl]
Distance
from Grid
(km)
Doc 3 Tang
Nam Nung
Krong No
95
395
19.8
7
Thac Lao
Eapo
Cu Jar
80
345
17.3
8
Dak Mre
Quang Tan
Dak R Lap
200
915
45.8
15
Cac cwn dan cur
xa Dak R Mang
Dak R Mang
Dak Glong
592
3101
155.1
15
Deo 52
Quang Son
Dak Glong
77
405
20.3
12
Khu KTM Ha Tay
Quang Son
Dak Glong
112
384
19.2
15
Thac 11-12
Quang Son
Dak Glong
394
1904
95.2
10
28
(4) Lam Dong province
Lam Dong province has a population of just over 1 million at 1,004,000 and consists of 11
districts and is similar in size to Kom Tum at only 9,764 km2. Topography consists
mainly of highlands but there are also many villages that the government finds difficult to
electrify by 2010. The team obtained information for 33 non-electrified villages, that
according to ID Lam Dong will not benefit from the planned region wide power grid
expansion.
The village populations are typically larger than that of Kon Tum, Gia Lai and the
households are also more clustered around a central location. This situation is ideal for
installation of a photovoltaic system that will supply power and water to village residents.
Local income is derived from coffee and pepper production and villagers collect water
from small privately owned wells. As with the other provinces, they suffer from a lack of
water in the dry season and must walk long distances to streams in order to collect water
for basic necessities.
In our site survey, we visited 3 villages and chose 10 target villages to compute the cost
estimate in our study.
Table 4.6 List of Potential Villages in Lam Dong
Village Name
Commune Name District Name
Water
No. of
No. of
Demand Per
Household Population
Day [kL]
Thon Pre Tieng 2
Xa Phu Son
324
1237
61.85
Thon Van Minh
Xa Tan Van
210
918
45.9
Thon 10
Xa Da Don
221
938
46.9
117
864
43.2
185
1021
51.05
171
910
45.5
215
804
40.2
186
825
41.25
Thon 3
Thon 5
Xa Tan Thanh
IV Lam Ha
Thon 8
Thon Ha Lam
Thon Lien Ha 1
Xa Lien Ha
Thon 11
Xa Hoa Nam
VII Di Linh
201
1005
50.25
Thon 13
Xa Hoa Nam
VII Di Linh
205
1025
51.25
29
Distance
from Grid
(km)
3km or Over
4.2.2
Water Quality of Target Villages
The water quality of rural areas will be the determinant as to whether purification
equipment will be included in the project scheme. The project team collected water from
various locations and the following list contains a complete water quality analysis for the
targeted sites. The testing was conducted at the Institute for Environmental Technology,
Laboratory for Environmental Analysis in Ho Chi Minh City. Drinking water standards
are also listed to allow for a comparison.
For values not included in the drinking water standards, it is assumed that the tested
samples are within the limits and water is suitable for drinking purposes. As set forth by
the Minister of Health and the People Health Protection Law, all water supply plants,
water suppliers for eating/drinking, water supply systems for less than 500 people and
private water supply systems are recommended to adhere to these standards.
According to the following data, purification equipment is not required for this project
scheme. There is no significant contamination of the well water and it is deemed suitable
for drinking. Furthermore, salinity values in this region are negligible and desalination
equipment is not required.
Table 4.7 Drinking Water Standards Compared with Samples
No
Item
Unit
Sample
Drinking
Water
1
2
6.5-8.5
7.31
6.77
<1000
61.5
199
Standards
1
pH
2
Total
Dissolved
mgCaCO3/
Solid
L
3
Nitrate NO3
mg/L
<50
3.15
51.0
4
Nitrite NO2
mg/L
<3
ND
ND
5
Fluoride
mg/L
.7-1.5
0.41
0.99
mg/L
<250
12.4
137.0
0.68
11.54
78.6
65.8
72.6
104
117
144
-
6
Chloride
7
Total Nitrogen
mgN/L
8
Sulphate SO4
mg/L
9
Total
mgC/L
Cl
Inorganic
<250
Carbon
10
Hardness
mgCaCO3/
30
<300
L
11
Iron
µg/L
<500
87
76
12
Lead
µg/L
<10
ND
ND
13
Cadmium
µg/L
<3
ND
ND
14
Arsenic
µg/L
<10
0.65
0.90
15
Manganese
µg/L
<500
60
4
(1) – Sample of well water from DAK RMANG commune DAK NONG Province
(2) – Sample of well water from DAK PA TUNG commune GIA LAI Province
ND = Not detected
Although the above list contains two values that are not within standards, Dr. Cu, the
Chief Director of the Laboratory for Environmental Analysis assured the project team that
these values do not pose a problem. According to Dr. Cu, it is difficult for natural water to
have a Fluoride value between .7 and 1.5 and values are generally a health risk only when
they exceed 1.5 mg/L. For the Nitrate NO3, the value of 51 should “not be a concern” and
it is included for reference only. Dr. Cu concluded that in his professional opinion, the
water samples are sufficient for drinking and do not require any purification equipment.
Table 4.8 Drinking Water Standards Compared with Samples
No
Item
Unit
Sample
Drinking
Water
1
2
3
4 (*)
5
6.5-8.5
7.16
7.01
7.15
6.56
7.39
<1000
16.0
13.0
9.0
7.6
13.0
mg/L
<50
< 0.35
< 0.35
< 0.35
< 0.35
< 0.35
mg/L
<3
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Standards
1
pH
2
Total
mgCaC
Dissolved
O3/L
solid
3
Nitrate
NO3
4
Nitrite
NO2
5
Fluoride
mg/L
.7-1.5
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
6
Chloride
mg/L
<250
1.9
2.2
1.86
1.0
3.8
0.25
0.014
0.26
X
0.0028
Cl
7
Total
mgN/L
31
Nitrogen
8
Sulphate
mg/L
<250
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
21.27
21.11
9.2
13.84
2.89
<300
31.2
25.0
11.0
X
2.5
SO4
9
mgC/L
Total
Carbon
10
Hardness
mgCaC
O3/L
11
Iron
µg/L
<500
5.0
83.0
16.0
5.0
5.0
12
Lead
µg/L
<10
< 0.2
< 0.2
< 0.2
0.2
<0.2
13
Cadmium
µg/L
<3
< 0.2
< 0.2
< 0.2
< 0.2
<0.2
14
Arsenic
µg/L
<10
< 0.1
0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
15
Mangane
µg/L
<500
3.0
0.7
0.9
0.2
0.2
se
(1) – Water sample from Fuji Electric PV+MH Site in Gia Lai
(2) – Water sample from TOM MO RONG Village in KOM TUM Province
(3) – Water sample from tank in TOM MO RONG Village in KOM TUM Province
(4) – Water sample from tank in PO DAN Village, MANG YANG commune in GIA LAI
Province
(5) – Water sample from mountain stream in PO DAN Village, MANG YANG commune
in GIA LAI Province
ND = Not detected
4.3. Showcase of Existing Off-Grid Power Systems
(1)
Fuji System in Gia Lai
Fuji Electric Systems and ID Gia Lai recommended the team to visit a model project site
in Gia Lai. Fuji Electric Systems in cooperation with the New Energy and Industrial
Technology Development Organization (NEDO) and the Electricity of Vietnam (EVN)
initiated a PV village electrification project for the Central Highlands. Although the
system’s purpose was to serve as demonstrative research, it greatly improved the lives of
local residents and remains in operation to this day.
32
Figure 4.2 External appearance of PV yard
99.5kW
880 modules
Data acquisition
system
MC1
26.64kW/10s×24p
111W Module
<<System Controller>>
26.64kW/10s×24p
111W Module
3Φ4W
415V
Gret village
PleiBot village
Sequencer
MC2
PV
System
Meteoro
Hlang village
Inverter
DC246V
(230V∼330V)
Premises
MC3
22.20kW/10s×20p
111W Module
100kVA
Transformer
400V/415V
Test Load
To MH
MC4
24.00kW/20s×10p
120W Module
Controller
Battery
689kWh
2800Ah/246V
<<Power Conditioner>>
Water
Intake
Water
Turbin
MH
System
3Φ,415V
25kW
Induc
ti
Hybrid
Controller
Source: Fuji Electric Systems
The system was designed to optimize the configuration of a stand-alone hybrid system
between PV and Micro Hydro Power taking into account both reliability and cost. It was
located at Trang Village, Mang Yang district in Gia Lai province and consists of a 100 kW
stand alone PV system and a 25 kW micro-hydro system that provides power to 510
households in 3 different villages.
Furthermore, the training and technology program consisted of specifications for the
project, an instruction manual, an operation manual and also PV experts conducted onthe-job training sessions during site visits. Finally a meeting was held with individuals
from Gia Lai Electric Power Company regarding the long-term operation and
maintenance of the system.
33
Figure 4.3 Organization of the Fuji Electric PV System Project
Ministry of Industry
NEDO
Fuji
Electric
Counterpart
Ministry of Science,
Technology and
Environment
Electricity of
Vietnam
<Maintenance, Operation>
<Study>
Institute of
Energy
Power Company
No.3
(Electric power company
of central Vietnam)
Gia Lai Electric
Power
Department
(Electric power company
(Institute under
Electricity of Vietnam)
of Gia Lai Province)
Source: Fuji Electric Systems
Prior to project implementation, this area had not been electrified and lagged behind in
economic development. Furthermore, the use of kerosene lamps for lighting made it
difficult for children to study in the evening. The project improved the quality of life as
every house was supplied with electric lighting and villagers were then able to socialize in
the evening and children could continue to study after sunset.
Test operations began in September 1999 and actual operations began in January of 2000.
Gia Lai Electric Power Department also dispatched two operators who stayed near the site
to assist with operation and maintenance. The technicians successfully transferred this
knowledge to local people so they could operate the facilities themselves thereby ensuring
long-term sustainability. The research program ended in 2001, however, villagers continue
to enjoy the immense benefits of this program and the project has enriched the lives of so
many who once only knew darkness.
Through this system, a myriad of different opportunities have opened up and children are
now raised with the hopes and dreams of a brighter future. This would not have been
possible without the cooperation and warm relationship between the governments of
Vietnam, Japan and their respective businesses and implementing organizations.
34
(2) Buon Cham System
In addition the project site in Gia Lai, representatives from Solarlab in Ho Chi Minh City
and ID Dak Lak invited the team to visit a PV project site in Dak Lak known as Buon
Cham Village. The team’s visit to the site would prove invaluable as a comparison could
be made with the system in Gia Lai. The Ministry of Science, Technology and
Environment (MOSTE) Vietnam and NRW Germany developed this village under
photovoltaic power scheme. Upon its completion in 2002, it provided power to 100
households, a cultural house, 2 classrooms, medical service, ration telephone, water
pumping equipment, and library lighting.
Buon Cham Village was intended to be a showcase village that demonstrates the benefits
of such a system and according to a report in written in 2002 shortly after its completion,
it stated that the lives of villagers have drastically changed and people no longer live in
isolation. They now enjoy color TV’s, radios, lighting systems and regularly enjoy
traditional dancing, karaoke and could spend more time reading and socializing with other
villagers.
However, the project team visited Buom Cham village on January 17, 2007 and was
presented with a different situation. At the time of the site survey, villagers reported that
equipment frequently broke down and the PV system at the cultural house was inoperable.
Many villagers expressed frustration that they could no longer utilize their systems and
were receiving little help from outside sources.
35
Figure 4.4 Outline of Buon Cham Village
Source: Buon Cham Village Documents from Solarlab
According to the Buon Cham village documents and interviews with villagers, it seems
that this project was thoroughly planned and that all necessary conditions had been met,
further investigation by the project team confirmed this fact, the problem was project
implementation.
The issues that this village faced can provide important lessons for any future PV/water
pumping scheme in this region. There are several reasons why Buon Cham village is in its
current predicament. This information should be used for future projects to ensure that
this is not repeated.
Please refer to the following section for a brief description of project flow and problems
encountered at Buon Cham Village.
36
Figure 4.4 Outline of Project Flow for Buon Cham Village
Installation and Training
14 day installation and training period
3-4 days for installation
10 days for training and instruction
3 local villagers sent to HCMC for 7 day training
course on PV maitenance
Fees and O/M
100 families, each agree to pay 5000 VND/month
500,000 VND/month
400,000 VND as salary for 3 staff and
100,000 for any needed repair parts
Fee Collection
Responsibility of village leader and 2 assistants
Problems
Failed to collect payments, only 20 households pay
Unable to pay salaries of technical staff
Forced to refund money to 20 families
No maitenance scheme implemented
Source: Buon Cham Village Documents from Solarlab
Consequently, the technicians did not receive their salary and returned to farming work.
When a minor problem did occur with system components, villagers contact one of the
technicians and pay directly for any work performed. There was no standardization of fees
collected for work performed; apparently the fee is based on consensus with the
technician and the villager.
Although this system worked for approximately one year with no major malfunctions, it
was apparent that it would not lead to long-term project sustainability. In 2003, there was
a breakdown of the main batteries and control system at the cultural house. This was
repaired by the district at a cost of 120 million VND and paid for by a district subsidy.
Similarly, in 2004 another breakdown of the same parts occurred and it also cost 120
million VND paid for by a district subsidy to repair the problem. Finally in 2005 when the
same problem occurred again, the district denied the subsidy and the system has been
inoperable since that time.
37
5
Photovoltaic Electric Power and Water Supply System Proposal
The proposed system design for this project was based on many factors. The team
collected village information for targeted areas such as number of households, total
population and mean water intake etc…during the site survey and also obtained it directly
from the respective Peoples Committees in the Central Highlands (Gia Lai, Kon Tum,
Dak Lak, Dak Nong and Lam Dong) for system design.
The team decided to focus its efforts on 37 villages; these villages consist of 5,737
households and a total population of 26,805 people. Potential sites were determined
taking into consideration the method of water collection, distance from distribution lines
and road conditions.
Table 5.1 Village List for System Study
Unit
Gia lai
Number of Potential Village
Kon Tum Dac Lak Dak Nong Lam Dong
Total
6
6
8
7
10
37
Number of population
people
2,680
1,653
5,476
7,449
9,547
26,805
Number of household
family
536
352
1,264
1,550
2,035
5,737
5.1 Study of Optimum System
(1) Selection of target project villages
The following factors were taken into consideration to determine the ideal system design
for this project.
1. Selection of non-electrified villages in the Central Highlands
2. Number of households and inhabitants
3. Data used for system specification design:
・ Electric power demand for household and pumping system
・ Water demand per household
・ Well depth and head
4. Electric power needed for household electrification and pump operation
5. Calculation of the expected photovoltaic power generation using regional insolation
data
38
6. Determination of solar cell module, inverter and battery capacity
(2) Pre-conditions for Optimum System Design
The team conducted a survey of rural villages to determine the appropriate system design
based on the specific needs and desires of the villagers and also similar projects in the
same area. For this specific project, it is assumed that villagers will utilize two light bulbs,
a TV, radio and electricity can be supplied for approximately 4 hours a day. Furthermore it
is assumed that each villager will have access to 50 liters of water per day per person.
These factors were taken into consideration for system design in order to best suit the
requirements of villagers and also to ensure project sustainability.
Table 5.2 Pre-Conditions of the System
Light
Item Television
[W] Radio
Consumption of Electric Power per Household
Supply Time of Electric Power
Capacity
Number
20
50
10
2
1
1
4 hours/day
Consumption of Water per People
50 liter/day/people
Well Depth from Ground Surface
15m
Water Level in Hi-tank from Ground surface
10m
Operating Time of Water Pump
5 hours/day
39
Total Capacity
40
50
10
100[W]
Figure 5.1 Image of the Project
Rural Electrification
Photovoltaic Array
Junction box
Premises
Battery
charger
Inverter
(CVCF)
Fluorescent lamp
Village
Battery
TV
Village
Pumping up water
Hi-tank
Irrigation water
Deep
well
Submersible
pump
Small pump
Drinking water
Water tap
5.2 Cost Calculation
In the original proposal, the team planned to recommend three project components, PV
powered water pumping, PV electrification and water purification. In this chapter the
team calculated the PV powered water pumping and electrification.
Following thoughtful consideration, the team concluded that water purification was not
necessary in this region due to the high quality of water and its lack of both contaminants
and salinity. The team therefore omitted this section from the project report.
(1) Cost Calculation for PV Powered Pumping Equipment
First, the team focused on a PV powered system that pumps up water. The team then
prioritized villages and attempted to focus on non-electrified villages that have
relatively large populations and deep wells. However, despite our efforts, many of the
non-electrified villages in this region have small privately owned shallow wells that
were also included in this study.
40
Table 5.3 Cost calculation of PV system for Pumping Equipment
Unit
Gia lai
Number of Village
Kon Tum Dac Lak Dak Nong Lam Dong
6
6
8
7
10
Total
37
Number of population
people
2,680
1,653
5,476
7,449
9,547
26,805
Number of household
family
536
352
1,264
1,550
2,035
5,737
Necessary of electric
power
for pump-up
kWh/day
33
20
66
90
116
325
m3/day
134
83
274
372
477
1,340
Necessary of water
Necessary Capacity of
motor
kW
7
4
13
46
23
93
Capacity of PV for pumpup
kW
16
10
33
45
58
163
Assuming the villagers use 50 liters per day per person, the total capacity of the PV
system would be 163 kW.
The formula for configuration of the system is listed in Appendix 5
(2) Cost calculation of PV system for Household Electrification
The team confirmed there is a strong need and desire for lighting and appliances such
as TV during the site survey. The following information relates to PV household
electrification.
The team examined both solar home systems (SHS) and battery charging station
(BCS) as optimal PV systems. The SHS system is advantageous for a village with
scattered households and small power demand. However, the 37-targeted villages all
have relatively large populations and power is expected not only for household
electrification but also for pumping equipment. The team therefore concluded that the
ideal system should be BCS in this study.
The necessary electric power for a BCS system is calculated as follows,
41
Table 5.4 Cost Calculation for Household Electrification
Unit
Number of Village
Gia lai
Kon Tum Dac Lak Dak Nong Lam Dong
6
6
8
7
10
Total
37
Number of population
people
2,680
1,653
5,476
7,449
9,547
26,805
Number of household
family
536
352
1,264
1,550
2,035
5,737
kWh/day
214
141
506
620
814
2,295
Capacity of PV
for electrification of household
kW
107
71
253
310
408
1,149
Capacity of Battery for households
kWh
536
352
1,264
1,550
2,035
5,737
Necessary of electric power
Assuming the villagers’ use one 100-Watt light bulb per household, the total capacity
of PV would be 1.149 MW and a battery would be required to store the power.
Capacity would be 5,737 kWh.
The formula for system configuration is in Appendix 6
42
6
Economical Analysis of the Project
6.1 Initial Cost
The project equipment consists of water pumping system (including water tank)
photovoltaic array and battery. Assuming the standard equipment components mentioned
above, the team estimated the initial cost for both water pumping and household
electrification (Battery Charging Station).
(1) Initial Cost for Water Pumping
System configuration and cost estimate for Water Pumping System are as follows,
Figure 6.1 Water Pumping Equipment
Photovoltaic System
1 Solar Cell Module
2 Inverter
3 Controller
4 Frame
5 Junction Box
Photovoltaic Array
Junction box
High tank
Irrigation water
Pump-up System
1 Pump
2 Water Tank
3 Controller
Inverter
(VVVF)
Water tap
Electricity
Deep
well
Water
Construction Work
1 Material
2 Labor Fee
Supervisor / Engineer / Worker
Drinking water
Submersible
pump
Pumping up water
Table 6.1 Cost Estimate for Water Pumping
Unit
Gia lai
Kon Tum
Dac Lak
Dak Nong
Lam Dong
Total
Number of Village
Number of population
Number of household
Necessary Electric Power
Necessary Water Amount
Pump Capacity
Photovoltaic Capacity
Ⅰ Photovoltaic System
Ⅱ Battery System
Ⅳ Pump-up System
Ⅵ Construction Work
people
family
kWh/day
m3/d
kW
kW
Million Yen
Million Yen
Million Yen
Million Yen
6
2,680
536
32.5
134.0
6.5
16.3
11
0
28
3
6
1,653
352
20.0
82.7
4.0
10.0
7
0
17
2
8
5,476
1,264
66.4
273.8
13.3
33.3
22
0
58
5
7
7,449
1,550
90.3
372.5
45.9
45.2
30
0
85
7
10
9,547
2,035
115.8
477.4
23.2
58.0
38
0
101
9
37
26,805
5,737
325.1
1,340.3
92.8
162.8
108
0
288
26
Total System Cost
Million Yen
42
26
85
122
148
423
43
(2) Initial Cost for Household Electrification (Battery Charging Station)
System configuration and cost estimate for Battery Charging Station are as follows,
Figure 6.2 Equipment for Household Electrification (Battery Charging Station)
Photovoltaic System
1 Solar Cell Module
2 Controller
3 Frame
4 Junction Box
5 Battery Charger
Photovoltaic Array
Rural Electrification
Junction box
Battery Charging Station
Battery
charger
Battery System
1 Battery
Construction Work
1 Material
2 Labor Fee
Battery
Supervisor / Engineer / Worker
Table 6.2 Cost Estimate for Household Electrification (Battery Charging Station)
Unit
Gia lai
Kon Tum
Dac Lak
Dak Nong
Lam Dong
Total
Number of Village
Number of population
Number of household
Necessary Electric Power
Photovoltaic Capacity
Battery Capacity
Ⅰ Photovoltaic System
Ⅱ Battery System
Ⅳ Pump-up System
Ⅵ Construction Work
people
family
kWh/day
kW
kWh
Million Yen
Million Yen
Million Yen
Million Yen
6
2,680
536
214.4
107.4
536.0
64
11
0
18
6
1,653
352
140.8
70.5
352.0
42
7
0
12
8
5,476
1,264
505.6
253.2
1,264.0
150
26
0
41
7
7,449
1,550
620.0
310.5
1,550.0
184
32
0
51
10
9,547
2,035
814.0
407.7
2,035.0
242
42
0
66
37
26,805
5,737
2,294.8
1,149.3
5,737.0
682
119
0
188
Total System Cost
Million Yen
93
61
218
268
350
990
6.2 Operation Cost
As the previous section only estimated the initial cost of the project, it is also necessary to
compute the Operation Cost as well. Therefore, the maintenance cost is calculated by
multiplying the cost of each component by a fixed rate as follows:
44
Table 6.3 Maintenance Cost of the Equipment
System
Fixed Maintenance Cost Rate
Photovoltaic System
0.1% / System cost
Pumping System
0.2% / System cost
Photovoltaic arrays and another incidental devices often require a minimum amount of
maintenance as they generate power from insolation. The primary O&M cost is due to the
necessity of battery replacement. The battery for the proposed system is expected to last at
least 10 years, after which it will need to be replaced and the cost is estimated to be
approximately the same as the initial battery.
The team will estimate the cost for the total system combining both water pumping and
household electrification components. Table 6-4 shows the total O&M costs of each
province.
Table 6.4 Maintenance Cost and Battery Replacement
Cost of Maintenance
Replace Cost of Battery
Total O&M Cost
K Yen
K Yen
131
1,115
83
732
288
2,629
383
3,224
482
4,233
1,367
11,933
K Yen
1,246
815
2,917
3,607
4,714
13,300
6.3 Economic Analysis of the System
According to interviews, for villager’s that own livestock or cultivate certain cash crops,
their capacity to pay for this region is around 300 yen/month. However, many poor
villagers receive no monetary income and it is impractical to assume that villagers will be
able to reimburse the initial cost of 1.412 billion Yen (about 53,000 Yen per person);
therefore, the project team recommends the government to subsidize this cost.
If the government subsidizes the initial cost of the project, villagers will be responsible for
only the O&M cost. Assuming the generated power sells at a rate of 600 VND/kWh, total
power sales would be 3,706,000 Yen / year. This would result in a monthly electric fee of
about 50 yen/month. Although this is well within the their financial means, it is
45
recommended that villagers pay an additional 140 yen/month to act as a reserve fund to
cover system O&M. In addition, the project team also recommends that the government
also subsidize the electricity fee for poor villagers that are unable to pay. These payments
will cover the costs of any major malfunctions, battery replacement and also ensure the
long-term sustainability of this project.
Based on the above calculations, it is estimated that the total rate will be approximately
190 yen/month (140+50) and this revenue will be used for maintenance of the PV pump
and also battery replacement.
Table 6.5 Economical Analysis of the System
Unit
Number of Village
Number of population
Number of household
Gia lai
Kon Tum
Dac Lak
6
1,653
352
System Cost of Water Pump
M Yen
42
26
85
122
148
423
System Cost of HH Electrification
M Yen
93
61
218
268
350
990
M Yen
K Yen
K Yen
134
131
1,115
87
83
732
303
288
2,629
390
383
3,224
499
482
4,233
1,412
1,367
11,933
K Yen
1,246
815
2,917
3,607
4,714
13,300
K Yen
346
227
817
1,001
1,315
3,706
Reserve Fund For O&M
( 140yen/Household/month)
K Yen
900
591
2,124
2,604
3,419
9,638
Total Income
K Yen
1,247
819
2,940
3,605
4,734
13,345
Total O&M Cost
Auunal Sales of Electric Power
(Average: about 50 yen/Household/month)
46
10
9,547
2,035
Total
6
2,680
536
Replace Cost of Battery
7
7,449
1,550
Lam Dong
people
family
Total System Cost
Cost of Maintenance
8
5,476
1,264
Dak Nong
37
26,805
5,737
7
Environmental Concerns and Socio-economic Impact
Prior to the project implementation stage, it is necessary to consider the impact on the
environment implementing organizations should demonstrate that the project does not
adversely influence the local area. In addition to environmental concerns, the expected
benefits that may be incurred are also mentioned in order to demonstrate the total project
impact.
7.1 Environmental Concerns
The study follows “Japan Bank for International Corporation (JBIC) Guidelines for
Confirmation of Environmental and Social Considerations” published by JBIC in April of
2002. According to the guidelines, “18. Water Supply” the following environmental
items are taken into consideration for this project.
Table 7.1 Consideration of JBIC Guidelines
JBIC Guide Line
Ca tegory
Environmental Item
Consideration
Items applicable to the Project
(1) EIA and
1 Permits and Environmental Permits
Explanation
(2) Explanation to the
Public
(1) Air Quality
2 Mitigation
Measures
3 Natural
Environment
4 Social
Environment
5 Others
6 Note
(Omitted)
Appraisal & Preventive Measures
(Will be studied in the next stage)
Not applicable
-
(2) Water Quality
Underground water pollution induced
Will be designed not to pump up excess water
by excess water pumping
(3) Waste
R/O waste water
Waste water and oil during
construction
Managed accoding to manual
(4) Noise and Vibration From pumps
N/A
Due to small scale
(5) Subsidence
One due to excess water pump-up
Will be designed not to take excess water
(1) Protected Areas
Applied if the site is in National Park N/A
or so
Due to no nearby protected areas
Applied if there is species influenced
N/A
by machine installation or water
Due to no negative impact on species
pump-up
N/A
(1) Resettlement
Land occupation
Due to abundant space
N/A
(2) Living and
Opportunity cost of land occupation Because the plant is established in an open
Livelihood
or water pumping
space and purpose of underground water is not
changed
Applied if there is natural or cultural N/A
(3) Heritage
hearitage around
Due to no signifigant effects
N/A
(4) Landscape
Existance of plant itself
Because of its small scale
(5) Ethnic Minorities
Applied if there live minorities
N/A
and Indigenous Peoples around
Because this project benefits minorities
(1) Impacts during
Exhausted gas and noise from heavy
Managed according to construction manual
Construction
equipment
(2) Ecosystem
(2) Monitoring
Quality of underground water
Note on Using
According to Vietnam
Environmental Checklist
47
Will be monitored periodically
N/A
Most of the above items are not problematic because the project scale in each village is
relatively small and will have a negligible impact on the environment. The only
environmental consideration is that the groundwater quality may be negatively influenced
due to excessive pumping. Therefore, the system should be designed not to pump water
that exceeds its capacity.
(1) PV System for Household Electrification
Photovoltaic power is a clean energy source and typically results in no negative
environmental impact. It is often a safe alterative to diesel generators that generate noise
and pollution along with power. However, the disposal of batteries is something that must
be considered in any PV project. Based on the similar project experience, if there is not a
well-structured system in place and no educational to alert local people to the dangers,
batteries from the electrification system may result in environmental degradation.
Batteries used in PV systems contain certain chemical compounds that are detrimental to
the environment and it is necessary to implement proper battery disposal methods to
ensure long-term project sustainability. The team recommends that battery disposal
programs take into consideration the following points:
¾
Disseminate information from the manufacturer to the user and persons responsible
for disposal via manuals and/or the establishment of guidelines that clearly outline
and describe the correct procedures for battery collection and disposal
¾
Establish a used-battery collection and storage system and an inspection agency to
monitor this process to encourage local people not to randomly discard inoperable
batteries
¾
Establish clear legally binding responsibilities as defined by regulations for
user/manufactures
There are several firms that already deal with battery disposal in Vietnam. To ensure the
long-term sustainability of this project, the team recommends close cooperation with these
organizations to establish an appropriate battery disposal system.
48
7.2 Socio-Economic Impacts
Electrification is often the first step towards development, villages and municipalities that
lack this basic service are often put at a disadvantage regarding job creation and education.
Electricity is the link to more prosperous regions and a necessary conduit to improve the
quality of life. Utilizing abundant natural resources is an ideal solution to provide power
to remote regions and the high insolation in the Central Highlands makes photovoltaic
power a safe and clean alternative to fossil fuels.
Rural electrification projects often provide more than just light, there are countless other
direct benefits that villagers will enjoy. For example, without electricity, villagers
typically use candles or kerosene lamps for lighting. This is often costly due to the high
price of fuel and also dangerous due to the increased risk of fire. Electricity also allows
children to study in the evening and also family entertainment such as radio and TV.
Finally, the entire village can benefit as it brings people closer together as they can
socialize though increased community interaction.
This project also involves water-pumping equipment that will reduce labor spent on hand
pumps to collect water. The pumping equipment will also allow children more
opportunities for studying as it may decrease the long distances required to collect water.
A summary of the expected benefits is in table 7.2.
Table 7.2 Expected Socio-Economic Benefits of PV System
Expected Benefits
Reduce the possibility of oil leaks, lamp
Improve convenience of daily life and breakage that may result in fires
increase safety
May use incandescent bulb as a night light
External lighting
Improve hygiene
Reduce soot and smell from kerosene lamps
Decrease money spent on kerosene fuel
Decrease expenditures and increase
income
Improve the efficiency of domestic work (can be
done in the evening) and spare time can be used
to engage in handicraft industry
Reduces time spent operating hand pump
49
Increase access to information
TV, radio
Lighting provides opportunity for home study
Increase educational opportunity
and extended study hours
Increase time spent with family and
community
Increase
variety
Electric lighting allows families to spend time
together in the evening and also to socialize with
other families
of
hobbies
and Entertainment media (TV, radio, movies) also
entertainment
spare time allows more time for personal hobbies
Improve school facilities
Lighting in schools
Improve Communication
Village Activities
(Speakers, announcements)
Street lights make villagers feel safer in the
evening
Along with the obvious direct benefits, there are also a number of indirect benefits that
will further improve the quality of life at project sites. With increased community
interaction and an active life, many project sites report that some relatives return from the
city to the villages. This not only results in family benefits, but also possible income
generation for the region and the mitigation of population imbalances.
Furthermore, external and internal lighting result in villagers caring more about the
appearance of their habitations and they often strive to improve this through painting and
improved sanitation. Finally, the benefits are not only in the villages but the entire region
as the increased education and higher literary further rural development, which eventually
benefits all of Vietnam.
50
8
Conclusion and Recommendation
8.1
Conclusion
The development of the Central Highlands in Vietnam has become a major focus area;
future project aid from various donors is expected to increase and together with Laos and
Cambodia, it is often referred to as the “Development Triangle.” The Vietnamese
government is dedicated to improving the living standards for residents of this area,
especially the ethnic minorities and it is committed to major investments in its
infrastructure over the next three years. Specifically, power grid extension investments in
remote areas are now a high priority and the government is financing these efforts by
funds provided by the central government and foreign donors. This is often done through
social development programs that target rural mountainous regions such as “Program
135.” (See Appendix 4)
However, the team realizes that despite programs such as “135,” certain villages will
remain without grid-connected power and also continue to suffer from a lack of potable
water nearly throughout the year. The project team recognizes the need for development
of this region and anticipates that a PV/water pumping project will drastically improve the
quality of life for ethnic minorities that inhabit these areas.
The interviews conducted with numerous officials from the Department of Industry and
Peoples Committees in each of the 5 provinces confirmed this dire situation. Furthermore,
visits to non-electrified villages and discussion with local leaders solidified our opinion
that there is a strong need to assist these disadvantaged areas. The local and central
governments strongly support any effort for development.
These outlying areas with no access to electricity and potable water are currently
restrained from development; they have limited opportunities and are in a sense isolated
from the outside world. Therefore, the rural electrification of these areas using renewable
energy has enormous social potential. In addition, the high level of insolation make PV
systems an inevitable choice for small-scale electrification and the success of several
functioning PV projects in the region further substantiates this fact.
The local government in the 5 provinces of the Central Highlands recommended 94
potential sites and based on local conditions the project team then selected the 37 most
51
appropriate sites. The total project cost is expected to be approximately 12 million USD
with energy capacity totaling 1.3MW.
The most important aspect of this project though is that it will change the lives of 26,800
local people and future generations. The project scheme is an investment in social capital
and human welfare that will provide meaningful returns for decades.
Although the initial costs of the project are high and villagers often do not have the
knowledge to operate and maintain these systems, most were enthusiastic at the prospect
and agreed to pay for operational costs (approximately 1.6 USD/month) to ensure the
sustainability of the facilities. However, due to the high poverty rate and unfortunate
economic conditions, they will most likely be unable to reimburse the initial cost of the
project. In order for this project to be a success, it is necessary to obtain funding based on
a grant scheme or through technical assistance funded by the central government.
The Institute of Energy, an organization of the Vietnamese government is in the process of
drafting the “Master Plan for Renewable Energy Development.” This plan will be
completed next year (2008) and it will outline clear target areas for future rural
electrification projects. This pre-feasibility study for the Central Highlands should not be
the final step and every effort should be made for the continued investigation of this
project scheme in response to the upcoming publication.
This project encompasses two primary goals, the development/promotion of renewable
energy sources that will reduce environmental degradation and also the improvement of
social conditions for many ethnic minorities in the region. Although, this is a
pre-feasibility study, it will provide the needed analysis and evaluation for future
development in the area. It is therefore in the opinion of the project team that the general
information for the Central Highlands and the conceptual design will serve as an
invaluable resource for any future detailed development study.
8.2
Recommendation
During the site survey, the team realized that GOV had accelerated the grid-extension
program and this resulted in the electrification rate increasing at a pace greater than the
team’s expectation. Due to this, the team confirmed that the villages included in the
chapter 4 were located in difficult locations and as of March 2007, were not expected to
52
be electrified by 2010.
The team recommends that if these villages are electrified at some point after the
installation of the PV systems, this equipment should be transferred to a suitable location
that remains outside the power grid and which will also benefit from its installation. For
example, there are many islands in Vietnam with rural populations that rely heavily on
diesel generators for their power needs. The generators require expensive diesel fuel and
are harmful to the environment. PV power would provide a safe and clean alternative.
This would ensure that the equipment continues to people the maximum amount of people
and is not simply abandoned. It would be in the best interest of Vietnam and its populace
to utilize the equipment to the furthest extent possible. The project team therefore
recommends that this type of transfer program be included in the next stage (full scale
F/S) of the project.
53
Appendix 1: Itinerary of Site Survey and List of Interviewees
The schedules of three site surveys conducted in Vietnam are as follows:
First Site Survey
Itinerary/Activities
1
Sep 4 Mon
Travel (Japan→Hanoi)
2
Sep 5
Meeting (JICA, MARD-CERWASS)
3
Sep 6 Wed
Meeting (VAST)
4
Sep 7
Meeting (EVN-IE, MOI, JBIC)
Tue
Thu
Meeting (EVN-Rural Electrification)
5
Sep 8
Fri
Travel (Hanoi→Da Nang→Pleiku)
Meeting (Gia Lai Electric, Gia Lai DOI)
6
Sep 9
Sat
7 Sep 10 Sun
8 Sep 11 Mon
9 Sep 12 Tue
10 Sep 13 Wed
11 Sep 14 Thu
12 Sep 15
Fri
Site survey (DAC DOA)
Site survey (MANG YANG)
Meeting (Gia Lai Peoples Committee, PCERWASS)
Site survey (DAC DOA, MANG YANG, Other Place)
Site survey (DAC DOA, MANG YANG, Other Place)
Meeting (Gia Lai Peoples Committee)
Travel (Pleiku→Ho Chi Minh)
Meeting (VAST, VFEC-HCM)
Meeting (Solar-Lab, Pump Manufacturer)
Travel (Ho Chi Minh→Japan)
Second Site Survey
Activities
Team A
Team B
1 Oct 19
Thu
Travel(Japan → Ho Chi Minh)
2 Oct 20
Fri
Meeting(Solar Lab、VAST-IET)
3 Oct 21
Sat
Prepare Documents/Briefing Materials
4 Oct 22
Sun
Travel(Ho Chi Minh→Pleiku)
5 Oct 23 Mon
Meeting (ID Gia Lai、Gia Lai Peoples' Committee)
6 Oct 24
Tue
Site survey(Kon Tum)
7 Oct 25 Wed
Site survey(Kon Tum)
8 Oct 26
Thu
Meeting(P-CERWASS)
9 Oct 27
Fri
10 Oct 28
Sat
Prepare Documents/Briefing Materials
11 Oct 29
Sun
Travel(Pleiku→Hanoi)
12 Oct 30 Mon
Meeting(JICA、JBIC)
13 Oct 31
Tue
Meeting(EVN-IE,MARD)
14 Nov 1
Wed
15 Nov 2
Thu
Site survey(So Pai)
Meeting(PC Gia Lai)
Meeting(Japan Embassy)
Travel(Hanoi→
Travel(
)
→Japan)
Meeting(ID Dak Lak/Nong)
Site survey(Dak Nong)
Meeting(ID Dak Nong)
Meeting(ID Dak Lak)
Site survey(Dak To Pang)
Travel (Pleiku→HCM)
Meeting(Solar Lab, VAST-IET)
Travel(Ho Chi Minh→
Travel(
→Japan)
)
Third Site Survey
Itinerary/Activities
1 Jan 14 Sun
2 Jan 15 Mon
3 Jan 16 Tue
4 Jan 17 Wed
5 Jan 18 Thu
Travel (Japan→Ho Chi Minh City)
Travel (Ho Chi Minh City→Dalat)
Meeting (ID Lam Dong )
Site Survey of Villages in Lam Dong
Travel (Dalat→Buon Ma Thout)
Meeting (ID Dak Lak),
Site Survey of Buon Cham Village,
Site Survey Dak Lak
Travel (Buon Ma Thout→Pleiku)
6 Jan 19
Fri
Meeting (ID Gia Lai)
7 Jan 20
Sat
Travel (Pleiku→Danang→Hanoi)
8 Jan 21 Sun
Arrange Meetings and Prepare Documents
9 Jan 22 Mon
Meeting (Japanese Embassy, IE)
10 Jan 23 Tue
Meeting (EVN, MOI,MARD)
11 Jan 24 Wed
Travel (Hanoi→Japan)
List of Interviewees
No.
Name
Specialty
1
Ms. Tran Hai Anh
Project Officer, MOI
2
Ms. Nguyen Thi Kim Kan
Officer, MOI
3
Dr. Pham Khanh Toan
4
Dr. Tran Thanh Lien
5
Mr. Nguyen Tien Long
6
Dr. Nguyen Quoc Khanh
Director, EVN-IE
Chief of International Cooperation Department,
EVN-IE
General Manager of Department R&D of Solar
and Wind Energy, EVN-IE
Energy & Economics, EVN-IE
7
Mr. Ho Anh Tuan
Electric Network Department, ENV-IE
8
Mr. Nguyen The Vinh
EVN-Rural Electrification Dept.
9
Mr. Msc Le Thieu Son
10
Mr. Ha Duc Chinh
11
Dr. Nguyen The Dong
12
Ms. Itsuka Ikehara
13
Mr. Yasuhisa Ojima
Deputy Director, MARD-CERWASS
and
Section,
Technical
Technological
MARD-CERWASS
Director, VAST-IET
Deputy Resident Rpresentitive, JICA Vietnam
Office
Representative, JBIC Hanoi Office
14
Mr. Hiroyasu Matsuda
Representative, JBIC Hanoi Office
15
Mr. Trinh Quang Dung
16
Dr. Bui Quang Cu
17
Mr. Hgo Van Sinh
18
Mr. Bui Van Tam
Director, SolarLab HCMC
Chief of Lab. Environment and Water Analysis,
VAST-IET
Deputy of the Chief of Provincial Secretary,
Gia Lai People’s Committee
Director, Gia Lai P-CERWASS
19
Mr. NGUYEN Son
Vice Director, Gia Lai DARD
20
Mr. Phan Van Lan
Director, Gia Lai ID
21
Mr. NGUYEN QUANG HIEN
Director, Gia Lai PC
22
Mr. Vo Thanh
Director, Dak Lak ID
23
Mr. Nguyen Bo
Director, Kom Tum ID
24
Mr. Bien Van Minh
Director, Dak Nong ID
25
Mr. Nguyen Tri Dien
Director, Lam Dong ID
26
Mr. Nguyen Duc Tue
Director, Department of Survey and Mapping
27
Mr. Vu Van Nghia
28
Mr Nguyen Duc Cuong
29
Mr Nguyen Ba Cuong
Department of Survey and Mapping
Head
of
Department,
Rural
Development, IE
Manager of Planning Department, IE
Energy
Appendix 2:
Insolation Data for Vietnam
Appendix 3: Gia Lai Grid Extension Plan
Appendix 4: Summary of Program 135
Program 135 is a government program in Vietnam to assist the socio-economic
development of communes located in mountainous, border or remote areas. The program
is being conducted in two phases, the first phase was initiated in 1998 and phase two
commenced in 2006.
Although Program 135 is not a National Targeted Program (NTP) it is usually considered
as such. Unlike other programs that may focus on only poverty stricken areas, Program
135 specifically targets poor residents of remote mountainous areas/border regions and
areas inhabited by ethnic minorities. Phase 2 implementation is taking place 2006-2010
and a short overview of the program is provided in the following section.
Overview of Program 135 (Phase 2)
Overall
-Achieve sustainable improvement of production skills to further development the
Objective
region, reduce poverty and mitigate the inequality gap.
-In addition, it is meant to ensure the social order and political security in these
regions.
-Project goal is that by 2010, eliminate hunger stricken households in the target
areas and the number of “poor households” should be below 30% (based on the
2005 poverty line)
Program
-Accelerate regional development and also shift the economic focus areas to benefit
Task
rural areas.
-Develop infrastructure and strengthen social organization of the community that
will ultimately improve the quality of life
Scope
-Phase 2 is expected to cover approximately 1,644 poor and mountainous communes
in 45 provinces, which are home to the majority of Vietnam’s ethnic minorities. This
involves all mountainous and highland provinces, any area inhabited by ethnic
minorities in the southern provinces.
Funding
-The program budget is approximately $800 million and financing activities are
grouped according to four broad components: basic infrastructure; improved and
market-oriented agriculture production; improved socio-cultural livelihoods through
better access to social services; and capacity building for officials at all levels to
better implement the program.
Appendix 5: Formula for PV Water Pumping System Configuration
Configuration of proposal system
PV
Inverte
Charge
controller
J-box
~
Moter
Pump
PV
Calculation of Load Demand
Driving power of a pump (P)
P = 0.163γQH / ηp
where,
3
Q : Amount of discharge [m /min]
H : Total head [m]
γ : Density of liquid [kgf/l]
ηp : Pump efficiency
The output energy through 1 kW of photovoltaic system is calculated using the following formula;
P0 = R x K
P0 : Output energy per day per 1kW (kWh/day/kw)
R : Daily radiation (kWh/m2/day)
K : Coefficient of power loss
3.24 kWh/m2/day (in Pleiku)
0.617
K = K1 x K2 x K3 x K4 x K5 x K6 x K7 x K8 x K9
K1 : Temperature coefficient 0.844
K2 : Coefficient of dirt on the surface of PV module
K3 : Efficiency of storage battery
K4 : Coefficient of DC loss
0.980
0.850
0.980
K5 : Efficiency of power conditioner 0.900
K6 : Coefficient of deviation from Pmax point 0.950
K7 : Coefficient of variation of irradiation 1.000
K8 : Coefficient factor of altitude
1.000
K9 : Correction factor of surroundings 1.000
The output energy per day per 1kW photovoltaic system is 2.00 kWh/day/kW.
Appendix 6: Formula for PV Household Electrification System Configuration
Q = P / P0
Q : Capacity of photovoltaic (kW)
P : Necessary electric power (kWh/day)
P0 : Output energy per day per 1kW (kWh/day/kW)
Calculation of capacity of battery
A battery is used to supply electric power to households in the evening and during periods
of no sunshine.
Fig. 6 demonstrates a rough sketch of the electric supply system using
battery.
Battery
PV
J-box
Charger
Battery
PV
Battery
Battery
Battery
The battery’s necessary capacity is calculated with the following formula.
Calculation of Required Battery Capacity
Ld×Df×1000
C=
L×Vb×N×DOD×K5
where,
Ld : Daily load demand [kWh/day]
Df : Non-sunshine day [day]
L : The rate of maintenance
Vb : Nominal voltage of battery [V]
N : Quantity of batteries
DOD : Depth of Discharge
K5 : Loss coefficient of AC side
Battery
ベトナム国
中部高原地域無電化村での
太陽光発電を使った地方給水/電化可能性調査
和
文
要
約
要
1.
約
調査の背景
年率約 8%の経済成長を続けているベトナム社会主義共和国(以下ベトナム)では、国民
の多くが農村部に居住しており、近年、都市部との格差が社会問題化し、農村地域の貧
困削減策が重点課題となっている。このため、ベトナムは自国補助金や各国ドナーから
の援助資金を最大限活用し、社会インフラとなる給水と電力供給による生活環境の改善
に力を入れている。しかし、少数民族が多い「北部山岳地域」や「中部高原地域」では、
依然として電化率および給水普及率が全国水準を下回っており、早急な社会経済インフ
ラ整備の最優先地域として焦点が当てられている。
今回対象とした「中部高原地域」の 5 省(コンツム、ジアライ、ダクラック、ダクノン、
ラムドン)には、配電線延長による電力供給は経済的に成り立たず、電力の恩恵にあず
かれない小規模村落が未だ多数存在している。一方、同地域は月の平均日照時間が 200
時間以上と豊富な太陽エネルギーを有する地域でもある。本調査では、現地政府機関と
協力し、中部高原地域無電化村落での給水および電化の現状を調査したうえで、同地域
へ最適な太陽光発電システムの導入と電化による生活環境改善等に資する案件形成の
可能性を探ることとした。
2.
地方電化と再生可能エネルギーの現状と展望
(1) 地方電化の現状と展望
工業省により 2004 年 10 月に公布された「Vietnam Power Sector Development Strategy」
(政
令)には、
¾
島嶼部や山間部など地形的にグリッド電化が困難な地域への再生可能エネ
ルギーを利用した電力供給
¾
2010 年までの地方世帯 90%および 2020 年までの 100%電化の達成
といった 2004∼2010 年における電力セクター戦略並びに 2020 年までの方向性が示され
ている。また、続いて施行された電力法には、
「山間部等への電力供給のための再生可能
エネルギーを利用した電力設備開発の促進や配電系統への国家予算の活用」等が規定さ
れている。これを達成するため、ベトナム政府は年間約 200-300million USD を投資し、
・ 地方電化の手法は、送配電網からと独立型電源からの電力供給の双方で推進する
こととし、最小コストとなるような最適電化手法を選定する。
・ 地方電化の基準は、電化による農業生産性向上が期待できる地域および経済の近
代化/構造改革を推し進めている戦略的地域を優先する。
という方針のもと、配電線延長による地方電化を進めてきた結果、2006 年上期末で、世
帯レベル 91.5%と目標値を達成することができた。
i
Year
District
Commune
Household
2000
96.6%
81.9%
73.5%
2001
97.6%
84.9%
77.5%
2002
97.9%
90.6%
81.4%
2003
97.9%
92.7%
83.5%
2004
97.9%
94.6%
87.5%
2006
98.0%
97.8%
91.5%
しかし一方で、残された遠隔地域の小規模村落電化は配電線延長では経済性が成り立た
ないため、「Off-Grid 地方電化計画」を策定し、太陽光や小水力といった再生可能エネ
ルギーを利用した電化を強力に推進している。この財源として、工業省では 2005 年か
ら 5 年間で 20 million USD を用意している。
(2) 再生可能エネルギー利用の現状と展望
工業省では、管轄する地域ごとに太陽光発電、風力発電、小水力発電など再生可能エネ
ルギー資源の開発計画を策定している。これら計画をもとに、工業省の下部組織である
エネルギー研究所(IE)が、ベトナム全体の再生可能エネルギーマスタープランを作成
中であり、2008 年に完成する予定である。
現在ベトナム政府が推進している再生可能エネルギー導入政策は、EVN の要請を受け
て世界銀行が策定した「Renewable Energy Action Plan (REAP)」が基本となっている。こ
のアクションプランには、①政策や基準策定、②資金支援、③技術援助、④トレーニン
グ、⑤情報提供と啓蒙活動について、ベトナム政府のとるべき方向が記されている。
ベトナムにおける主な再生可能エネルギー資源には、太陽エネルギーをはじめ風力、小
水力エネルギーがあり、さらにこれ以外に、農業や林業から得られるバイオマスエネル
ギー利用に大きな期待が寄せられている。このうち、太陽エネルギーは南部や中部高原
地域の日射条件が良く(4.0 ∼ 5.2 kWh/m2/day:わが国の 1.5 倍程度)、太陽光発電シス
テムの設置に適した地域とされている。すでに、これら地域では太陽光発電による電化
システムが導入運営されている。また乾季の井戸水位低下に対しては、太陽光発電によ
る深井戸揚水も大いに期待されている。一方、風力発電は平地には適した場所が少なく、
沿海地域や島嶼部で
の開発が考えられる。
エネルギー研究所で
は、2020 年に次のよ
うに可能性を掲げ、
その開発を推進して
2004
Solar
Mini Hydro
Wind
Biomass
Geothermal
Total
MW
0.8
135
0.8
150
287
GWh
284
1.6
∼290
いる。
ii
Potential by 2020
MW
GWh
4-6
500-780
3,600 200-400
5,000
310-410
100
1,114-1,596
Potential by 2030
MW
GWh
3,300
9,500
3.
地方給水の現状と展望
ベトナム政府の給水政策は都市給水と地方給水に区別されており、地方給水は農業地方
開発省 MARD が管轄している。同省によれば、電化済みコミューン中心地の地方給水
は MARD が管理運営しているが、無電化村落の給水までは行き届かない状態である。
現在、「National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy Program: NRWSS」(農村部の給
水衛生改善戦略)により長期的な目標を定め、2010 年までに全農村地域の 85%に安全な
生活用水を 60 ㍑/人・日供給するとしているが、無電化村落は優先順位が低く、給水計
画から取り残されている。特に中部高原地域では水道管による安全な水へのアクセス率
は低く、多くの村民は個人所有の井戸、湧水の引水、雨水に頼っている状態である。
4.
対象村落の選定と現地調査結果
調査団は、中部高原地域5省の工業局および人民委員会から、2010 年以降も配電線延長
による電化対象とならない村落リストを入手した。近年の政府による地方電化の加速推
進により、残された無電化村落は、ほとんどが車両でのアクセスも困難な遠隔地域で、
かつ小規模な村落であった。これら村民の多くは米やキャッサバの農耕により生計を建
てているが現金収入は僅かであり、一部が灯油ランプとピコ水力により照明やラジオを
使用しているのみである。井戸の多くは個人所有であり、深さは 20m 程度、乾季には水
位が低下し、生活用水を得るため数 km 離れた湧き水まで往復せざるを得ない状態であ
る。
調査団は、入手した将来電化が困難な 94 の無電化村落(約 11 千世帯)のリストから、
比較的人口が多く、配電線からの距離が遠い 37 ヶ村落(約 5,700 世帯)を抽出し、これ
らに対して、太陽光発電による給水および電化計画を検討することとした。一村当たり
の人口、家屋の分布および需要等村民からの聞取り情報をもとに、電化方法は一カ所に
太陽電池パネルを設
置し、井戸水揚水と
バッテリー・チャー
Province
Villages no power until 2010.
(ID recommendation)
Number of village
Kon Tum
Number of house
18
Target Villages
(the team selected)
Number of village
Number of house
703
6
352
Gia Lai
6
536
6
536
Dak Lac
30
3,533
8
1,264
ン(BCS)を想定す
Dak Nong
7
1,550
7
1,550
ることとした。
Lam Dong
33
5,044
10
2,035
Total
94
11,366
37
5,737
ジング・ステーショ
5.
想定する給水および電化システムの提案
現地調査により抽出した 37 村落、5,737 世帯について、太陽光発電による給水および電
化の最適なシステムを検討した。まず前提条件として、給水設備は 50 ㍑/人・日、揚程
25m、ポンプ運転時間 5 時間とした。また、電化設備は世帯あたり1日4時間、100W
iii
を供給するものとした。設備の基本仕様は次のとおり。
(1) 給水システム
対象とした 37 村落、26,000 人へ「50 ㍑/人・日」の水を供給するとして、1,340 ㌧/日相
当の揚水量が必要となる。このための太陽電池容量はトータルで 163kW。これにもとづ
き、太陽光発電システムおよびポンプ、タンク等設備コストは総額約 4.2 億円と試算さ
れた。
Photovoltaic Array
Junction box
Unit
Number of Village
Number of population
people
Number of household
family
Necessary Water Amount m3/d
Pump Capacity
kW
kW
Photovoltaic Capacity
Total System Cost
High tank
Total
37
26,805
5,737
1,340
93
163
Million Yen
Irrigation water
Inverter
(VVVF)
Water tap
Electricity
Deep
well
Water
423
Pumping up water
Drinking water
Submersible
pump
(2) 村落世帯電化システム(BCS)
対象とした 5,700 世帯へ、一世帯当たり 100W の電力を供給する場合、必要となる太陽
電池容量はトータルで 1.1MW。バッテリーは 5.7MWh。太陽光発電システムおよびバ
ッテリー等の設備費用は総額約 9.9 億円と試算された。
Unit
Number of Village
Number of population
Number of household
Necessary Electric Power
Photovoltaic Capacity
Battery Capacity
Total System Cost
people
family
kWh/day
kW
kWh
Million Yen
Total
Photovoltaic Array
Rural Electrification
Junction box
37
26,805
5,737
2,295
1,149
5,737
990
Battery Charging Station
Battery
charger
Battery
(3) 運営維持管理
遠隔地域の無電化村落の電化では、地域によって配電線延長より再生可能エネルギーに
よる独立配電系統給電やバッテリー充電サービスが、経済性で優位になる。しかしなが
ら、遠隔地域の村民は現金収入が極めて乏しく、太陽光発電設備の初期投資額を回収す
ることはきわめて困難であり、各国ドナーやベトナム中央政府が負担せざるを得ない。
これらの状況に鑑み、今回の調査では、持続可能なシステム構築を目指すため、維持運
営費のみを裨益者負担とすることで検討を進めることとした。
太陽光発電システムにおいて、太陽電池はメンテナンスフリーであり、主な維持管理費
はバッテリーの取替費用である。これを 10 年周期で交換すると仮定し、その費用を電
iv
気料金もしくはバッテリー取替積立金として住民から徴収するとすれば、190 円/月/世
帯相当となる。この程度の負担は、現金収入源となる家畜や農作物を所有する住民には
支払い可能であるが、現金収入の無い村民は支払えないと考えられる。従って、設備の
持続性を確保するためには、維持運営費についてもベトナム政府からの何らかの補助金
投入が必要であろう。現在でも、中央政府から農村部村民へ補助金が支給されている 135
プログラム等を活用することにより、持続性の確保は可能と期待される。
6.
今後の展開
ベトナム国中部高原地域は、開発の遅れに伴う他地域との経済格差の是正が最優先課題
であり、各国ドナーからも、ラオス、カンボジアと併せて「開発の三角地帯」として注
目されている。このためベトナム政府も貧困層への補助金や小規模インフラ整備を加速
させており、配電線延長による地方電化は当初計画を超えるスピードで進んでいる。
調査団は、2010 年以降も配電線電化の対象となっていない 37 の村落 5,737 世帯のなか
から、中部高原5省の工業局と人民委員会およびエネルギー研究所とも協議のうえ、遠
隔地域の特徴を有する代表的な村落を選定し、太陽光発電による電化と給水の可能性を
探るための現地踏査を実施した。本調査で全ての対象サイトの踏査はできなかったもの
の、この代表村落踏査でえられた情報をもとに、最適なシステム検討を行った結果、37
全ての村落へ太陽光発電による電化および給水を行うために必要な設備は、太陽光発電
容量:1.3MW、総費用は約 14 億円となった。ただ、持続性の確保という視点から見た
場合、初期投資費や維持運営費等に対するベトナム政府の関与等について、今後さらに
検討を要する事項は残されていると考える。
一方、この調査を通じて、中部高原地域をはじめとする遠隔地域村落の電化や給水のみ
ならず、島嶼部等でも太陽光発電による揚水、電化や脱塩のニーズが強いことも判明し
た。
現在、ベトナム政府は 2008 年完成を目指し再生可能エネルギーマスタープランを策定
中である。ここで示されるであろう政策と本調査の成果を併せ、太陽光発電をはじめと
する再生可能エネルギーの有効活用による本格 FS 調査が実施できれば、ベトナム国の
遠隔地域の民生向上にもつながっていくものと期待される。
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