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第1章 基礎

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第1章 基礎
1
(
)
2
3
Element
Hydrogen
Helium
Lithium
Beryllium
Boron
Carbon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Fluorine
Neon
Sodium
Magnesium
Aluminium
Silicon
Phosphorus
Sulfur
Chlorine
Argon
Potassium
Calcium
Scandium
Titanium
Vanadium
Chromium
Manganese
Iron
Cobalt
Nickel
Copper
Zinc
Gallium
Germanium
Arsenic
Selenium
Bromine
Krypton
Rubidium
Strontium
Yttrium
Zirconium
Niobium
Molybdenum
Technetium
Ruthenium
Rhodium
4
Palladium
Silver
Cadmium
Indium
Tin
Antimony
Tellurium
Iodine
Xenon
Caesium
Barium
Lanthanum
Cerium
Praseodymium
Neodymium
Promethium
Samarium
Europium
Gadolinium
Terbium
Dysprosium
Holmium
Erbium
Thulium
Ytterbium
Lutetium
Hafnium
Tantalum
Tungsten
Rhenium
Osmium
Iridium
Platinum
Gold
Mercury
Thallium
Lead
Bismuth
Polonium
Astatine
Radon
Francium
Radium
Actinium
Thorium
Protactinium
Uranium
5
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
A (
a
A
(
a
)
)
T (
)
ρ
Α
α
Β
β
Γ
γ
Δ
δ
Ε
ε
Ζ
ζ
Η
η
Θ
θ
Ι
ι
Κ
κ
Λ
λ
Μ
μ
alpha
beta
gamma
delta
epsilon
zeta
eta
theta
iota
kappa
lamda
mu
Ν
ν
Ξ
ξ
Ο
ο
Π
π
Ρ
ρ
Σ
σ
Τ
τ
Υ
υ
Φ
φ
Χ
χ
Ψ
ψ
Ω
ω
nu
xi
omicron
pi
rho
sigma
tau
upsilon
phi
chi
psi
omega
(second)
(metre)
(kilogram)
(ampere)
(kelvin)
mol (mole)
cd (candela)
rad (radian)
sr (steradian)
6
(milli)
(kilo)
μ (micro)
(mega)
(nano)
(giga)
(pico)
(tera)
(femto)
(peta)
(atto)
(exa)
(zepto)
(zetta)
(yocto)
(yotta)
o
λc
λcp
[
]
[
[
]
[
]
]
-3]
[
-3
[ (ne ton)]
-2 ]
[
[
]
[
]
[
]
(
-2 ]
[
[
(
)
)
(
[
)
[
]
-2 ]
[
(coulomb)]
[
]
[
]
]
[
[Pa (pascal)]
[
[
( oule)]
( att)]
[
[
(volt)]
(farad)]
[Ω (ohm)]
[Pa]
[
-1
[
[
-2
]
-2 ]
-1
4
[ ] [ 2
2 ] [Ω] [
-2 ]
2
[ ] [ 2
-3 -2 ]
-3 ]
[
]
[
2
-3
-1 ]
]
7
2
[
[
]
[mol]
ε
-1 mol-1]
[
3]
[
]
-1 ]
[
[
-2
r
-1
-1]
[
]
[
[
]
[
-1]
[
e
[
mol-1]
εo
]
[
-1
-1]
]
π
)
[mol]
[mol
-1
(
)
[
2
-1 mol-1] [ ]
-2 -1 mol-1
-2
[
3]
3]
1/2
r
2
πε
2
εo
π
e
2
-1
-
Lockheed-Martin Astronautics
Lockheed-Martin Astronautics
8
[
[
(
(
-1]
(pascal)
-1
)
)
[
(hertz)
[
[
[
-2]
-3
[Ω (ohm)
2
-3
-2]
( eber)
2
-2
-1]
[
-2 ]
]
[
[
]
2]
[
]
-3
(
[
]
[
[
]
2]
[
]
[
2]
[
-1]
(coulomb)
-2
(farad)
[
[
[
-3
[ -1
-1 4
-1 ]
2]
[
[
-2
-3 ]
]
[
2
[
-1
]
-2
[
mol-1
A
-1 mol-1
-1
*
*
mol-1
*
*
*
*
*
]
-1
4
-2
(siemens)
-2
(tesla)
*
*
2
( oule)
) [
* π
*
[
-2]
2]
-1
3
2]
-1]
)]
-2 ]
[
-1 ]
(
)
]
[
[
2
-3]
2
(volt)
[
[
(
2
( att)
-2]
(ne ton)
-1
εo
-1
-1
-1 ]
-2
[
-2 ]
-3
-1 ]
9
A
A
(ⅰ)
(ⅱ)
(ⅲ)
(ⅳ)
(ⅴ)
ν
λ
ν
mol-1
mol-1
mol-1
mol-1
2
εo
π
λ
e
2
mol
mol
mol
-1 mol-1
mol
mol-1
10
(
)
mol-1
A
mol
mol
mol
(
)
(
mol
)
mol
mol
(
)
mol
mol
(
Cl
Si
O
Ca2+
F-
Na+
Cl-
N
B
Ti4+
Cs+
O2-
)
mol
11
(
(
)
)
(
(
)
(
)
(
(
)
)
(
(
(
)
)
(
)
(
)
)
(
)
(
(
)
)
(
(
(
)
)
(
)
(
)
)
(
)
(
)
)
12
δ
δ
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
13
mol
mol
mol
μ
μ
μ
(
)
14
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
15
mol
mol
mol
mol
mol
(
)
(
)
(
(
)


mol
mol

mol
mol
mol
)
16

CN
3-
CN
CN
Fe(III)
CN
CN
CN
mol
(
(
)
)

[
(
)
]

[
(
)
]
mol
mol
(
)
mol
mol
mol

(
mol
)
mol
mol

mol

(
l
)
mo
17

mol
mol

mol

mol
mol



(
[
[
(
)
]
(
)
(
)
(
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
(
(
)
[
(
(
(
(
(
]
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
(
(
(
)
(
)[
(
)
)
]
)
)
)
(
)
]
18




[
[
(
)
(
)
]
]










[
(

[
(
)
]
)
]







(
)
19
20
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